Planning Theory: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Planning Theory

1st Edition

Edited by Ali Madanipour


1,780 pages | 20 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780415746366
pub: 2015-06-05
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This four-volume collection covers planning theory in conjunction with social, political, economic, and cultural theory. The set is organized both chronologically and thematically, beginning with the key trends in the nineteenth century but primarily concentrating on the subsequent periods, which start from the rise of systematized city planning a century ago and flourished after the mid-twentieth-century social scientific challenges to the technical preoccupations of planning. In each period, the main theoretical movements are introduced through some of the most prominent contemporary writers, reflecting the various approaches in the best scholarship.

Planning Theory includes a full index and a comprehensive introduction, newly written by Ali Madanipour, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context. It is an essential work of reference and is destined to be valued by scholars and advanced students as a vital research tool.

Table of Contents

Volume I: Planning with Creativity

Part 1: Terrain and Trajectory

1. John Friedmann, ‘Two Centuries of Planning Theory: An Overview’, in Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987), pp.51-85.

2. M. Christine Boyer, ‘The Rise of the Planning Mentality’, in Dreaming the Rational City: The Myth of American City Planning (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1983), pp.59-82.

3. Harvey Perloff, ‘Education of City Planners: Past, Present and Future’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1956, 22, 4, 186-217.

4. Nigel Taylor, ‘Anglo-American Town Planning Theory Since 1945: Three Significant Developments But No Paradigm Shifts’, Planning Perspectives, 1999, 14, 327–345.

5. Ali Madanipour, ‘Connectivity and Contingency in Planning’, Planning Theory, 2010, 9, 4, 351-368.

6. Michael Brooks, ‘Running the Gauntlet of Planning Critics’, in Planning Theory for Practitioners (Chicago: Planners Press, 2002), pp.35-49.

Part 2: Groundwork for Planning

7. Frederick Winslow Taylor, ‘Introduction’, in The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1919), pp.5-8.

8. John Dewey, ‘Search for the Great Community’, in The Public and Its Problems (New York: H. Holt, 1927), pp.143-184.

9. Max Weber, ‘Technical Advantages of Bureaucratic Organizations’, in H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (eds), From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1948), pp.214-216.

10. John Maynard Keynes, ‘The End of Laissez-Faire’, in Essays in Persuasion (London: Macmillan, 1931), pp.312-322.

11. Karl Mannheim, ‘The Concept of Social Control: Planning as the Rational Mastery of the Irrational’, in Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co, 1940), pp.265-273.

12. Friedrich Hayek, ‘Individualism and Collectivism’, in The Road to Serfdom (London: Routledge, 1944), pp.24-31.

13 Joseph Schumpeter, ‘The Process of Creative Destruction’, in Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (London: Routledge, 1943), pp.81-86.

14. Karl Popper, ‘Interpreting versus Planning Social Change’, in The Poverty of Historicism (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957), pp.44-46.

15. Max Weber, ‘The Formal and Substantive Rationality of Economic Action’, in The Theory of Social and Economic Organization (New York: The Free Press, 1947), pp.184-186.

16. Herbert Simon, ‘From Substantive to Procedural Rationality’, in S.J.Latsis (ed.), Method and Appraisal in Economics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), pp.129-148.

Part 3: Spatial Visions and Social Orders

17. Michel Foucault, ‘The Eye of Power’, in Colin Gordon (ed.), Power/Knowledge (Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 1980), pp.146-165.

18. Leonardo Benevolo, ‘Preface’, in The Origins of Modern Town Planning (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967), pp. xi-xiv.

19. Francoise Choay, ‘Regularization’, in The Modern City: Planning in the 19th Century (New York: George Braziller, 1969), pp.15-27.

20. Camillo Sitte, ‘The Artless and Prosaic Character of Modern City Planning’, in The Art of Building Cities: City Building according to its Artistic Fundamentals (New York: Reinhold, 1945), pp.53-58.

21. Ebenezer Howard, ‘Author’s Introduction’, in Garden Cities of To-Morrow (London: Swan and Sonnenschein & Co. Ltd, 1902), pp. 9-19.

22. Patrick Geddes, ‘Ways to the Neotechnic City’, in Cities in Evolution (London: Williams & Norgate Ltd, 1915, 1949), pp.84-108.

23. Raymond Unwin, ‘Of Civic Art as the Expression of Civic Life’, in Town Planning in Practice (New York: Benjamin Blom, 1934), pp.2-14.

24. Lewis Mumford, ‘The Neighborhood and the Neighborhood Unit’, The Town Planning Review, 1954, 24, 4, 256-270.

25. Le Corbusier, ‘The Great City’, in The City of To-morrow and Its Planning (London: The Architectural Press, 1929, 1971), pp.85-105.

26. CIAM, ‘The Town-Planning Chart, Fourth C.I.A.M Congress, Athens 1933’, in J.L.Sert, Can Our Cities Survive? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1944), pp.246-249.

27. Frank Lloyd Wright, ‘The Usonian Vision’ in When Democracy Builds (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945), pp.65-71.

28. Christopher Tunnard, ‘Creative Urbanism’, The Town Planning Review, 1951, 22, 3, 216-236.

Volume II: Planning with Efficiency

Part 1: Rational Planning: Ends and Means

29. Martin Meyerson and Edward Banfield, ‘Note on a conceptual scheme’, in Politics, Planning, and the Public Interest (New York: Free Press, 1955), pp.303-329.

30. Martin Meyerson, ‘Building the Middle-Range Bridge for Comprehensive Planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1956, 22, 2, 58-64.

31. Edward Banfield, ‘Ends and Means in Planning’, International Social Science Journal, 1959, 11, 3, 361-368.

32. Herbert Simon, 1961, ‘Decision Making and Planning’, in H.S.Perloff (ed.), Planning and the Urban Community (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Institute of Technology and the University of Pittsburgh Press, 1961), pp.188-192.

33. Paul Davidoff and Thomas Reiner, ‘A Choice Theory of Planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1962, 28, 2, 103-115.

34. Alan Altshuler, ‘The Goals of Comprehensive Planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1965, 31, 3, 186-195.

Part 2: Incremental Planning: Engagement and Adjustment

35. Frank Sorauf, ‘The Public Interest Reconsidered’, The Journal of Politics, 1957, 19, 4, 616-639.

36. Charles Lindblom, ‘The Science of "Muddling Through"’, Public Administration Review, 1959, 19, 2, 79-88.

37. Amitai Etzioni, ‘Mixed-Scanning: A "Third" Approach to Decision-Making’, Public Administration Review, 1967, 27, 5, 385-392.

38. Dennis Rondinelli, ‘Urban Planning as Policy Analysis: Management of Urban Change’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1973, 39, 1, 13-22.

39. Aaron Wildavsky, ‘If Planning is Everything, Maybe It’s Nothing’, Policy Sciences, 1973, 4, 2, 127-53.

Part 3: Plural Planning: Participation, Advocacy, and Equity

40. Paul Davidoff, ‘Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1965,31, 4, 331-38.

41. Herbert Gans, ‘City Planning in America: A Sociological Analysis’, in People and Plans (New York: Basic Books, 1968), pp.57-77.

42. Sherry Arnstein, ‘A Ladder of Citizen Participation’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1969, 35, 4, 216-224.

43. Norman Krumholz, ‘A Retrospective View of Equity Planning: Cleveland, 1969-1979’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 1982, 48, 2, 163-174.

44. Susan Fainstein and Norman Fainstein, ‘City Planning and Political Values’, Urban Affairs Review, 1971, 6, 341-62.

45. Peter Marcuse, ‘Professional Ethics and Beyond: Values in Planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1976, 42, 3, 264-274.

Part 4: Complexity Planning: Systems and Linkages

46. Jane Jacobs, ‘The Kind of Problem a City Is’, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), pp.428-448.

47. Richard Bolan, ‘Emerging Views of Planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1967, 33, 4, 233-245.

48. Brian McLoughlin, ‘The Guidance and Control of Change: Physical Planning as the Control of Complex Systems’, in Urban and Regional Planning: A Systems Approach (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), pp.75-91.

49. Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber, ‘Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning’, Policy Sciences, 1973, 4, 2, 155-169.

50. Andreas Faludi, ‘The Rationale of Planning Theory’, in Planning Theory (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1973), pp.35-53.

51. Seymour Mandelbaum, ‘A Complete General Theory of Planning Is Impossible’, Policy Sciences, 1979, 11, 1, 59-71.

52. Ernest Alexander, ‘After Rationality, What? A Review of Responses to Paradigm Breakdown’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 1984, 50, 1, 62-69.

Volume III: Planning with Flexibility

Part 1: Critical Planning: Structures, Institutions, and Environment

53. David Harvey, ‘On Planning the Ideology of Planning’, in Robert Burchell and George Sternlieb (eds), Planning Theory in the 1980s (New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, 1978), pp.213-233.

54. Gwyneth Kirk, ‘Theoretical Approaches to Urban Planning’, in Urban Planning in a Capitalist Society (London: Croom Helm, 1980), pp.55-94.

55. Henri Lefebvre, ‘Philosophy of the City and Planning Ideology’, in Eleonore Kofman and Elizabeth Lebas (eds), Writings on Cities: Henri Lefebvre (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996), pp.97-99.

56. Richard Klosterman, ‘Arguments For and Against Planning’, Town Planning Review, 1985, 56, 1, 5-20.

57. Todd Swanstrom, ‘The Limits of Strategic Planning for Cities’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 1987, 9, 2, pp.139-157.

58. Robert Beauregard, ‘Between Modernity and Postmodernity: The Ambiguous Position of US Planning’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 1989, 7, 381-395.

59. Timothy Beatley, ‘Environmental Ethics and Planning Theory’, Journal of Planning Literature, 1989, 4, 1, 1-32.

60. Scott Campbell, ‘Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities?: Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 1996, 62, 3, 296-312.

Part 2: Diversity Planning: Race, Gender, and Culture

61. Beth Moore Milroy, ‘Taking Stock of Planning, Space, and Gender’,Journal of Planning Literature, 1991, 6, 1, 3-15.

62. Marsha Ritzdorf, ‘Feminist Thoughts on the Theory and Practice of Planning’, Planning Theory, 1992, 7/8, 13-19.

63. Iris Marion Young, ‘Concrete Imagination and Piecemeal Transformation’, Planning Theory, 1992, 7/8, 59-62.

64. June Manning Thomas, ‘Planning History and the Black Urban Experience: Linkages and Contemporary Implications’,Journal of Planning Education and Research, 1994, 14, 1, 1-11.

65. Mohammad Qadeer, ‘Pluralistic Planning for Multicultural Cities: The Canadian Practice’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 1997, 63, 4, 481-494.

66. Leonie Sandercock, ‘When Strangers Become Neighbors: Managing Cities of Difference’, Planning Theory & Practice, 2000, 1, 1, 13-30.

Part 3: Dialogical Planning: Communication, Negotiation, and Collaboration

67. John Friedmann, ‘Toward a Non-Euclidian Mode of Planning’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 1993, 59, 4, 482-485.

68. John Forester, ‘Planning in the Face of Conflict: Negotiation and Mediation Strategies in Local Land Use Regulation’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 1987, 53, 3, 303-314.

69. Patsy Healey, ‘Planning Through Debate: The Communicative Turn in Planning Theory’, Town Planning Review, 1992, 63, 2, 143-162.

70. Bent Flyvbjerg, ‘Aristotle, Foucault and Progressive Phronesis: Outline of an Applied Ethics for Sustainable Development’, Planning Theory, 1992,7-8, 65- 83.

71. Tore Sager, ‘Dialogical Incrementalism’, in Communicative Planning Theory (Aldershot: Avebury, 1994), pp.3-25.

72. Judith Innes, ‘Planning Through Consensus Building: A New View of the Comprehensive Planning Ideal’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 1996, 62, 4, 460-472.

73. James Throgmorton, 'The Argumentative or Rhetorical Turn in Planning' , in Planning as Persuasive Storytelling: The Rhetorical Construction of Chicago 's Electric Future (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), pp.36- 54.

Volume IV: Planning with Contingency

Part 1: Critical Planning: Power, Conflict, and Social Justice

74. Bent Flyvberg, ‘Habermas and Foucault: Thinkers for Civil Society?’, The British Journal of Sociology, 1998, 49, 2, 210-233.

75. Susan Fainstein, ‘New Directions in Planning Theory’, Urban Affairs Review, 2000, 35, 4, 451-478.

76. Margo Huxley and Oren Yiftachel, ‘New Paradigm or Old Myopia? Unsettling the Communicative Turn in Planning Theory’,Journal of Planning Education and Research, 2000, 19,333-342.

77. Neil Smith, ‘New Globalism, New Urbanism: Gentrification as Global Urban Strategy’, Antipode, 2002, 34, 3, 427-450.

78. David Harvey, ‘The Right to the City’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2003, 27, 4, 939-41.

79. Heather Campbell, ‘Just Planning: The Art of Situated Ethical Judgment’,Journal of Planning Education and Research, 2006, 26, 92-106.

80. Vanessa Watson, ‘Deep Difference: Diversity, Planning and Ethics’, Planning Theory, 2006, 5, 1, 31-50.

81. John Pløger, ‘Strife: Urban Planning and Agonism’, Planning Theory, 2004, 3, 1, 71-92.

82. Michael Gunder, ‘Planning as the Ideology of (Neoliberal) Space’, Planning Theory, 2010, 9, 4, 298-314.

Part 2: Deliberative Planning: Participation, Communication and Consensus

83. Patsy Healey, ‘The Pragmatic Tradition in Planning Thought’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 2009, 28, 277-292.

84. Charles Hoch, ‘Pragmatic Communicative Action Theory’,Journal of Planning Education and Research, 2007, 26, 272-283.

85. John Forester, ‘On the Theory and Practice of Critical Pragmatism: Deliberative Practice and Creative Negotiations’, Planning Theory, 2013, 12, 1, 5-22.

86. Stanley Stein and Thomas Harper, ‘Rawls's 'Justice as Fairness': A Moral Basis for Contemporary Planning Theory’, Planning Theory, 2005, 4, 2, 147-172.

87. Judith Innes and David Booher, ‘Reframing Public Participation: Strategies for the 21st Century, Planning Theory and Practice, 2004, 5, 4, 419-436.

88. Niraj Verma and HaeRan Shin, ‘Communicative Action and the Network Society: A Pragmatic Marriage?’,Journal of Planning Education and Research, 2004, 24, 131-140.

Part 3: Spatial Planning: Adaptive Systems, Networks, and Strategies

89. Michael Batty and Paul Torrens, ‘Modelling and Prediction in a Complex World’, Futures, 2005, 37, 745–766.

90. David Byrne, ‘Complexity Theory and Planning Theory: A Necessary Encounter’, Planning Theory, 2003, 2, 3, 171-178.

91. Robert Beauregard, ‘Planning and the Network City: Discursive Correspondences', in Louis Albrechts and Seymour Mandelbaum (eds), The Network Society: A New Context for Planning (London: Routledge, 2005), pp.24-33.

92. Michael Hebbert, ‘New Urbanism – The Movement in Context’, Built Environment, 2003, 29, 3, 193-209.

93. Jill Grant, ‘Two Sides of a Coin? New Urbanism and Gated Communities, Housing Policy Debate, 2007, 18, 3, 481-501.

94. Jean Hillier, ‘Plan(e) Speaking: a Multiplanar Theory of Spatial Planning’, Planning Theory, 2008, 7, 1, 24-50.

95. Louis Albrechts, ‘Strategic (Spatial) Planning Re-examined’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 2004, 31, 743-758.

96. Klaus Kunzmann, ‘Strategic Planning: A Chance for Spatial Innovation and Creativity’, disP: The Planning Review, 2013, 49, 3, 28-31.

97. Luigi Mazza, ‘If Strategic "Planning Is Everything, Maybe It's Nothing"’, disP - The Planning Review, 2013, 49, 3, 40-42.


About the Editor

Ali Madanipour is Professor of Urban Design and the Director of Global Urban Research Unit at Newcastle University, UK. His books include Urban Design, Space and Society (2014); Reconsidering Localism (forthcoming 2015); Public Space and the Challenges of Urban Transformation in Europe (co-edited, 2014); Knowledge Economy and the City (2011); Whose Public Space? International Case Studies in Urban Design and Development (edited, 2010); Designing the City of Reason (2007); Public and Private Spaces of the City (2003).

About the Series

Critical Concepts in Built Environment

Titles in the Critical Concepts in Built Environment series bring together the most significant and influential writings on key themes within topics across Architecture, Planning, Construction, Landscape and Property.  Edited and introduced by leaders in the appropriate fields, the volumes include essential readings from a wide range of sources. Each collection provides a thorough overview of the topic and debates surrounding it, creating a valuable resource for researchers, academics and students.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Human Geography
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Sociology / Urban