We are witnessing an ever-increasing level and intensity of disasters from Ecuador to Ethiopia and beyond, devastating millions of ordinary lives and causing long-term misery for vulnerable populations.
Bringing together 26 case studies from six continents, this volume provides a unique resource that discusses, in considerable depth, the multifaceted matrix of natural and human-made disasters. It examines their bearing on the loss of human and productive capital; the conduct of national policies and the setting of national development priorities; and on the nature of international aid and bilateral assistance strategies and programs of donor countries. In order to ensure the efficacy and appropriateness of their support for disaster survivors, international agencies, humanitarian and disaster relief organizations, scholars, non-governmental organizations, and members of the global emergency management community need to have insight into best practices and lessons learned from various disasters across national and cultural boundaries.
The evidence obtained from the numerous case studies in this volume serves to build a worldwide community that is better informed about the cultural and traditional contexts of such disasters and better enabled to prepare for, respond to, and finally rebuild sustainable communities after disasters in different environments. The main themes of the case studies include:
• the need for community planning and emergency management to unite in order to achieve the mutual aim of creating a sustainable disaster-resilient community, coupled with the necessity to enact and implement appropriate laws, policies, and development regulations for disaster risk reduction;
• the need to develop a clear set of urban planning and urban design principles for improving the built environment’s capacities for disaster risk management through the integration of disaster risk reduction education into the curricula of colleges and universities;
• the need to engage the whole community to build inclusive governance structures as prerequisites for addressing climate change vulnerability and fostering resilience and sustainability.
Furthermore, the case studies explore the need to link the existence and value of scientific knowledge accumulated in various countries with decision-making in disaster risk management; and the relevance and transferability from one cultural context to another of the lessons learned in building institutional frameworks for whole community partnerships.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Aspects of Community-Based Disaster Management and Disaster Resilience (Adenrele Awotona) Part I Africa: Introduction (Adenrele Awotona), 1. Architectural Curricula and the Sustainable Reconstruction of Flood-Devastated Housing in Nigeria (Abiodun Olukayode Olotuah and Abraham Adeniyi Taiwo), 2. Crises and Conflict-Induced Disasters in Nigeria: The Challenges of Curricular Development on Rebuilding Devastated Communities for Sustainability (Zanzan Akaka Uji), 3. The Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Hazards in the Mountainous Area of Kwande Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria (Bernard Tarza Tyubee and Iankaa Aguse), 4. A Comparative Analysis of Annual Maxima Time Series Models along the Lower Limpopo River Basin of Mozambique (Daniel Maposa, James J. Cochran, and ‘Maseka Lesaoana), Part II The Americas: Introduction (Adenrele Awotona), 5. Prisons and Disasters in the US: Understanding Why Prisons Are Unprepared to Respond to and Recover from Disasters (Melissa A. Surette (Savilonis)), 6. A Comparative Analysis of Proactive Disaster Mitigation Measures in Apartment Buildings in Boston and Washington DC (Seth H. Holmes), 7. Incorporating Natural Disasters into the Undergraduate Civil Engineering Curriculum: A Case Study of Hurricane Katrina and the Oso Landslide (Thomas C. Cross and James Kaklamanos), 8. The Social Implications of Disaster Waste Management on Displaced Residents: The Case of Hurricane Katrina—A Brief Systematic Review (Fatima M. Alfa), 9. An Urban Form Response to Disaster Vulnerability: Examining Tsunami Evacuations in Two Chilean Cities (Jorge León and Alan March), 10. Can Laws and Policies Foster Disaster Risk Reduction? The Case Study of Brazil, with Particular Focus on Housing Laws, Policies, and Programs (Karen Da Costa and Paulina Pospieszna), Part III Asia: Introduction (Adenrele Awotona), 11. An Effective Development Regulation System for a Resilient Built Environment: A Reform Project for Delhi, India (Sweta Byahut), 12. Medical Preparedness for Natural Disaster in India: Perspectives and Future Measures (Hem Chandra, Ankita Pandey, Supriya Trivedi, Sarika Sharma, Nitin Bharadwaj, and Leela Masih), 13. Community-Based Responses to Epidemic Diseases as a Potential Public Health Disaster: The Rockefeller Experience, 1915–1950 (Darwin H. Stapleton), 14. The Disaster Life Cycle in Turkey: Planning, Policy, and Regulation Changes (Derin N. Ural), 15. Main Lines of Action for Seismic Risk Reduction in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Iran (Mahmood Hosseini and Yasamin O. Izadkhah), 16. Pairing Aid Systems for Disaster Management: Case Studies of China and Japan (Xuepeng Qian, Weisheng Zhou, and Kenichi Nakagami), 17. Fukushima Dark Tourism (Yutaka Sho), 18. Still at Risk after Reconstruction: How Does the Mode of Reconstruction Cause New Vulnerabilities when Rebuilding a Vernacular Cultural Heritage Settlement? (Wang Yu and Hans Skotte), 19. The Provision of Participatory Shelter Facilities in Adverse Environments: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan (Fariha Tariq), Part IV Australia: Introduction (Adenrele Awotona), 20. Post-Bushfire Relocation Decision-Making and Personal Wellbeing: A Case Study from Victoria, Australia (Lisa Gibbs, Colin Gallagher, Karen Block, Elyse Baker, Richard Bryant, Lou Harms, Greg Ireton, Connie Kellett, Vikki Sinnott, John Richardson, Dean Lusher, David Forbes, Colin MacDougall, and Elizabeth Waters), 21. Separation and Reunification in Disasters: The Importance of Understanding the Psycho-Social Consequences (John F. Richardson, Elyse Baker, Hugh Colin Gallagher, Lisa Gibbs, Karen Block, Dean Lusher, Connie Kellett, Colin MacDougall, and Marita Smith), 22. Disaster Preparedness in Older People: A Case Study from Australia (Victoria Cornell), Part V: Europe and Multi-Continental Studies, Introduction (Adenrele Awotona), 23. University-Community Collaboration for Climate Justice Education and Organizing: Partnerships in Canada, Brazil, and Africa (Patricia E. Perkins), 24. Preparing Planners for Prepared Communities: Integrating Emergency Management into Planning Education (John "Jack" Lindsay), 25. Resilience in Urban Contexts: From South America to Europe (Matias Ezequiel Barberis Rami), 26. Land Use Modeling as a New Approach for Future Hazard-Sensitive Population Mapping in Northern Germany (Giedrius Kaveckis, Benjamin Bechtel, Jürgen Ossenbrügge, and Thomas Pohl), Summary and Conclusion: 27. Planning for a More Sustainable and Disaster Resilient World (Adenrele Awotona)
Adenrele Awotona, Professor of Urban Planning and Community Studies, is the founder and Director of the Center for Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters, and a former Dean of the College of Public and Community Service at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA. He was previously a Director of Studies for the British Council International Seminars ("Reconstruction after disasters") in the United Kingdom, where he has also served at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne as a Director of Graduate Studies in architecture and urban design. Furthermore, he was an Educator/Coordinator of Seminars (on community architecture) at the annual American Institute of Architects National Conventions for several years.