2nd Edition

Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Manual

By J. Benton Jones, Jr. Copyright 2012
    304 Pages 10 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    304 Pages
    by CRC Press

    As soil and crop management procedures have become more complex, County Agricultural Agents, farm advisors, consultants, and fertilizer and chemical dealers have had to specialize in some aspect of soil fertility and crop nutrition management procedures, limiting their ability to provide a range of advice and services. Most farmers and growers can no longer turn to just one source for the information and instruction needed to achieve their production goals.

    With over 70 percent new material, the second edition of the Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Manual discusses the principles determining how plants grow and the elements essential for successful crop production, with a focus on the principles of soil fertility and plant nutrition. The book covers physical and chemical properties of soil, chemical and organic fertilizers, soil acidity and alkalinity, liming and liming materials, and micronutrients essential to plant growth. It also describes elements toxic to plants, soil testing, and plant analysis.

    The topics and discussion in this self-contained book are practical and user-friendly, yet comprehensive enough to cover material presented in upper-level soil and plant science courses. It allows practitioners with general background knowledge to feel confident applying the principles presented to soil/crop production systems.

    Section I
    Management Requirements
    Productivity Factors
    Climatic Factors
    Moving Up the Yield Scale
    Product Quality
    Soil Fertility Principles
    Fertile Soil Defined
    Making and Keeping a Soil "Fertile"
    Biological Factors
    An "Ideal Soil"
    Soil Fertility Management Concepts
    Multiple Factor Yield Influence
    Soil Condition Related to Deficiency in a Major Element and Micronutrient
    Elemental Content of the Soil and Soil Solution
    Plant Nutrition Principles
    The Function of Plants
    Determination of Essentiality
    Essential Element Content in Plants
    Classification of the Thirteen Essential Mineral Elements
    Role of the Essential Plant Nutrient Elements
    Plant Nutrient Element Sources
    Element Absorption and Translocation
    Elemental Accumulation
    Element Absorption and Plant Genetics
    Diagnostic Plant Symptoms of Essential Plant Nutrient Element Insufficiencies
    The Plant Root
    Root Function
    Root Hairs
    Lateral Roots
    The Rhizosphere
    Root Ion Absorption
    Root Crops
    How to be a Diagnostician
    The Diagnostic Approach
    Being a Diagnostician
    Diagnostic Factors
    Evaluating Diagnostic Procedures
    Weather Conditions
    Factors Affecting Essential Nutrient Element Concentrations in Plants
    Plant (Crop) Wilting
    Certified Crop Advisor Programs

    Section II: Physical and Physiochemical Characteristics of Soil
    Soil Taxonomy, Horizontal Characteristics, and Clay Minerals
    Soil Orders (U.S. System of Soil Taxonomy)
    Designations for Soil Horizons and Layers
    Physical Properties of Soils
    Textural Classification
    Soil Separates or Primary Soil Separates
    Soil Separate Properties
    Soil Texture Characterization Definitions
    Soil Structure
    Tillage Practices
    Water-Holding Capacity
    Physiochemical Properties of Soil
    Soil Separate Properties
    Major Phyllosilicate Minerals in Soils
    Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of a Soil Based on Texture
    Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Determination of a Soil
    Anion Exchange Capacity
    Soil pH: Its Determination and Interpretation
    Causes of Soil Acidity
    Water pH Determination of Mineral Soil, Organic Soil, and Organic Soilless Rooting Media
    pH Determination using a Calibrated pH Meter
    Other Soil pH Determination Procedure
    Salt pH Determination for a Mineral Soil
    pH Interpretation: Mineral Soil
    pH Interpretation: Organic Soils
    pH Interpretation: Organic Soilless Medium
    Soil pH Constancy
    Plant Root Function
    Soil Acidity and NPK Fertilizer Efficiency
    Soil pH Effect on Elemental Availability and/or Soil Solution Composition
    Soil Buffer pH
    pH Determination of Water
    Soil Organic Matter
    Definitions of Soil Organic Matter and Its Components
    Soil Organic Matter Characteristics
    Methods of Soil Organic Matter Determination
    Management Requirements for High Organic Matter Content Soils
    Adverse Affects of Organic Matter Additions

    Section III: Plant Elemental Requirements and Associated Elements
    Major Essential Plant Elements
    Methods of Expression
    Established Date for Essentiality/Researchers
    Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
    Major Essential Element Properties
    Micronutrients Considered Essential to Plants
    Established Date for Essentiality/Researchers
    Content and Function
    Soil and Plant Species Associations
    Micronutrient Characteristics
    Micronutrient Properties
    Possible Additional Essential Micronutrients
    Elements Considered Beneficial to Plants
    The A to Z Nutrient Solution
    Elements Essential for Animals
    Basis for Essentiality for Beneficial Elements
    Potential Essential Elements
    "New" Beneficial Elements
    Element Substitution
    Form of Response
    Elements Considered Toxic to Plants
    The Nature of Elemental Toxicity
    Aluminum and Copper Toxicity
    Other Elements
    Plant Species Factor
    The Heavy Metals
    Trace Elements Found in Plants
    Elements Categorized as Trace Elements
    High Soil Content Elements
    Availability Factors
    Accumulator Plants and Elements
    Symbiotic Element

    Section IV: Methods of Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Assessment
    Soil Testing
    Field Sampling
    Soil Laboratory Selection
    Laboratory Soil Testing Procedures
    Interpretation of a Soil Test Result
    Soil Test Result Tracking (Monitoring)
    Liming and Fertilizer Use Strategies
    Plant Analysis and Tissue Testing
    Plant Analysis Objectives
    Sequence of Procedures
    Sampling Techniques
    Plant Tissue Handling, Preparation, and Analysis
    Methods of Interpretation
    Word Classification of Elemental Concentrations
    As a Diagnostic Technique
    Experience Required
    Data Logging/Tracking of Plant Analyses
    Utilization of Plant Analyses for Nutrient Element Management
    Tissue Testing
    Indirect Evaluation Procedures

    Section V: Amendments for Soil Fertility Maintenance
    Lime and Liming Materials
    Liming Terms
    Liming Materials
    Liming Materials and Their Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE)
    Mesh Size
    Quality Factor Designation
    Lime Requirement (LR)
    Soil Test Ratio of Ca to Mg Determines Form of Limestone to Apply
    Liming Rate Determined by Acidifying Effect of Fertilizer
    "Lime Shock"
    Lime Incorporation
    Depth of Incorporation
    Subsoil pH
    Inorganic Chemical Fertilizers and Their Properties
    Fertilizer Terminology
    Characteristics of the Major Elements as Fertilizer
    Conversion Factors for the Major Essential Fertilizer Elements
    Characteristics of the Micronutrients as Fertilizer
    The Physical and Chemical Properties of Fertilizers
    Naturally Occurring Inorganic Fertilizers
    Organic Fertilizers and Their Properties
    Composted Animal Manures
    Animal Manure Major Element Composition
    Other Organic Materials
    Soil and Plant Factors
    Fertilizer Placement
    Methods of Fertilizer Placement
    Soil Water, Irrigation, and Water Quality
    Soil Water Terminology
    Soil Factors Affecting Soil Water-Holding Capacity and Movement
    Irrigation Methods
    Irrigation Water Quality
    Water Treatment Procedures
    What is Water?

    Section VI: Methods of Soilless Plant Production
    Hydroponics Defined
    Historical Events
    Hydroponic Techniques
    Hydroponic Growing Systems
    Rooting Media
    Water Quality
    The Nutrient Solution
    Reagents and Nutrient Solution Formulations
    Concentration Range and Ratios
    pH Interpretation-Hydroponic Nutrient Solution
    Reconstitution of the Nutrient Solution
    Accumulation of Nutrient Elements and Precipitates
    Soilless Rooting and/or Growing Media
    Soilless Media Ingredients
    Soilless Media Formulations
    Physical Properties
    Physiochemical Properties
    Control of pH
    Use Formulations
    Bag Culture Systems
    "Fertility" Determination Procedure for an Organic Soilless Mix

    Section VII: Miscellaneous
    Organic Farming/Gardening
    Chemicalization of Crop Production
    "Organically Grown" Defined
    Suitable Inorganic Fertilizer Materials
    Suitable Organic Fertilizers
    Organic Soil Fertility Management
    Soil Physical Properties
    Food Safety and Quality Issues
    Weather and Climatic Conditions
    Climatic Factors
    Weather as a Diagnostic Factor
    Best Management Practices (BMPs)
    Best Management Practice Application Broadened
    Best Practice
    Important Protocol Considerations
    Precision Farming
    Section Appendices
    Formulation and Use of Soil Extraction Reagents
    Preparation Procedures and Elemental Content Determination for Plant Tissue
    Weights and Measures
    Reference Books and Texts


    Jones Jr., J. Benton

    Praise for the First Edition

    "This book has the admirable quality of being both organized to facilitate rapid look-up of information and being written in a readable style."
    The Growing EDGE (out of print)