1st Edition

Plasma Discharge in Liquid Water Treatment and Applications

    210 Pages 99 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    210 Pages 99 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Continue Shopping

    Plasma methods that effectively combine ultraviolet radiation, active chemicals, and high electric fields offer an alternative to conventional water treatment methods. However, knowledge of the electric breakdown of liquids has not kept pace with this increasing interest, mostly due to the complexity of phenomena related to the plasma breakdown process. Plasma Discharge in Liquid: Water Treatment and Applications provides engineers and scientists with a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena associated with plasma discharges in liquids, particularly in water. It also examines state-of-the-art plasma-assisted water treatment technologies.

    The Physics & Applications of Underwater Plasma Discharges

    The first part of the book describes the physical mechanism of pulsed electric breakdown in water and other liquids. It looks at how plasma is generated in liquids and discusses the electronic and bubble mechanism theories for how the electric discharge in liquid is initiated. The second part of the book focuses on various water treatment applications, including:

    • Decontamination of volatile organic compounds and remediation of contaminated water
    • Microorganism sterilization and other biological applications
    • Cooling water treatment

    Drawing extensively on recent research, this one-stop reference combines the physics and applications of electric breakdown in liquids in a single volume. It offers a valuable resource for scientists, engineers, and students interested in the topic of plasmas in liquids.

    Plasma Generation in Nature and in the Laboratory
    Needs for Plasma Water Treatment
    Conventional Water Treatment Technologies
    In-Line Filters
    Pulsed Electric Field
    Ultraviolet Radiation
    Plasma in Liquids
    Mechanisms of Plasma Discharges in Liquids
    Application of Plasma Discharges in Water

    Generation of Plasma in Liquid
    Partial and Full Discharges in Liquid
    Thermal Breakdown Mechanism
    Production of Reactive Species, UV, and Shock Wave by Electrical Discharges in Liquid
    Underwater Plasma Sources
    Direct Discharges in Liquid
    Bubble Discharges in Liquid

    Bubble and Electronic Initiation Mechanism
    Electrical Breakdown in Gas Phase
    The Townsend Breakdown Mechanism
    Spark Breakdown Mechanism
    Electron Avalanche for Electrical Breakdown in Liquid Phase
    Dense Gas Approximation
    Semiconductor Approximation
    "Bubble Theory" for Electric Breakdown in Liquid
    Bubble Formation: Interface Processes
    Bubble Formation: Joule Heating
    Bubble Formation: Preexisting Bubbles
    Streamer Propagation
    Electrostatic Model
    Thermal Mechanism
    Stability Analysis of the Streamers
    Electrostatic Pressure
    Surface Tension
    Hydrodynamic Pressure
    Nanosecond and Subnanosecond Discharge in Water
    Fast Imaging of Nanosecond and Subnanosecond Discharge in Water
    Ionization of Liquid by E-Impact
    Chance of Voids Formation

    Decontamination of Volatile Organic Compounds
    Conventional Technologies
    Mechanism of Plasma Treatment of VOCs
    Decomposition of Methanol and Ethanol
    Decomposition of Aromatic Compounds
    Decomposition of Chlorine-Containing Compounds
    Decoloration of Dyes in Wastewater
    Decomposition of Freons (Chlorofluorocarbons)
    Cleaning of SO2 with Nonthermal Plasma
    Acidic Water Case (pH < 6.5)
    Neutral and Basic Water Cases (pH > 6.5)

    Biological Applications
    Plasma Water Sterilization
    Previous Studies of Plasma Water Sterilization
    New Developments in Plasma Water Sterilization
    Plasma Species and Factors for Sterilization
    Comparison of Different Plasma Discharges for Water Sterilization
    Blood Treatment Using Nonthermal Plasma
    In Vitro Blood Coagulation Using Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma
    In Vivo Blood Coagulation Using DBD Plasma
    Mechanisms of Blood Coagulation Using Nonthermal Plasma

    Cooling Water Treatment Using Plasma
    Self-Cleaning Filtration Technology with Spark Discharge
    Calcium Carbonate Precipitation with Spark Discharge
    Effect of Plasma on Cooling Water
    Effect of Spray Circulation on Hardness of Cooling Water
    Mechanism of Plasma-Induced Calcium Precipitation
    Economic Analysis of Plasma Water Treatment
    Application for Mineral Fouling Mitigation in Heat Exchangers
    Fouling Resistance: Validation Study
    Visualization of the Calcium Carbonate Particles
    Cycle of Concentration




    Dr. Young I. Cho has been a professor at Drexel University in Philadelphia since 1985. Prior to joining Drexel University, he spent four years at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, as a member of the technical staff. His research interest includes fouling prevention in heat exchangers, physical water treatment using electromagnetic fields, hemorheology, and energy. Currently, he is developing methods of applying low-temperature plasma technology to prevent mineral and biofouling problems in cooling water.

    Dr. Alexander Fridman is Nyheim Chair Professor at Drexel University, Philadelphia, and director of the A. J. Drexel Plasma Institute. He develops novel plasma approaches to material treatment, fuel conversion, hydrogen production, aerospace engineering, biology, and environmental control. Recently, significant efforts of Dr. Fridman and his group have been directed to development of plasma medicine, which is a revolutionary breakthrough area of research focused on direct plasma interaction with living tissues and direct plasma application for wound treatment, skin sterilization, blood coagulation, and treatment of different diseases, not previously effectively treated.

    Dr. Yong Yang has been an associate professor at the College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) in Wuhan, China, since 2011. Prior to joining HUST, he spent five years at Drexel Plasma Institute, Drexel University, pursuing his PhD degree. His research interests include low-temperature plasma discharges in liquid and atmospheric gas and their applications in environmental, medical, and energy-related fields.

    "The approach and selection of topics are relevant to the technology for effective water treatment. The book can be useful to the researchers and students in this field, and can provide practical solutions for water treatment technology. In addition this book may aid knowledge in usage of plasma technology in other liquid domain."
    —Rupak K. Banerjee, PhD, PE, Fellow ASME, University of Cincinnati and Kallol Bera, PhD, Applied Materials, Inc., California, USA