Plasma Discharge in Liquid : Water Treatment and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Plasma Discharge in Liquid
Water Treatment and Applications

ISBN 9781138074958
Published March 31, 2017 by CRC Press
210 Pages 99 B/W Illustrations

USD $115.00

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Book Description

Plasma methods that effectively combine ultraviolet radiation, active chemicals, and high electric fields offer an alternative to conventional water treatment methods. However, knowledge of the electric breakdown of liquids has not kept pace with this increasing interest, mostly due to the complexity of phenomena related to the plasma breakdown process. Plasma Discharge in Liquid: Water Treatment and Applications provides engineers and scientists with a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena associated with plasma discharges in liquids, particularly in water. It also examines state-of-the-art plasma-assisted water treatment technologies.

The Physics & Applications of Underwater Plasma Discharges

The first part of the book describes the physical mechanism of pulsed electric breakdown in water and other liquids. It looks at how plasma is generated in liquids and discusses the electronic and bubble mechanism theories for how the electric discharge in liquid is initiated. The second part of the book focuses on various water treatment applications, including:

  • Decontamination of volatile organic compounds and remediation of contaminated water
  • Microorganism sterilization and other biological applications
  • Cooling water treatment

Drawing extensively on recent research, this one-stop reference combines the physics and applications of electric breakdown in liquids in a single volume. It offers a valuable resource for scientists, engineers, and students interested in the topic of plasmas in liquids.

Table of Contents

Plasma Generation in Nature and in the Laboratory
Needs for Plasma Water Treatment
Conventional Water Treatment Technologies
In-Line Filters
Pulsed Electric Field
Ultraviolet Radiation
Plasma in Liquids
Mechanisms of Plasma Discharges in Liquids
Application of Plasma Discharges in Water

Generation of Plasma in Liquid
Partial and Full Discharges in Liquid
Thermal Breakdown Mechanism
Production of Reactive Species, UV, and Shock Wave by Electrical Discharges in Liquid
Underwater Plasma Sources
Direct Discharges in Liquid
Bubble Discharges in Liquid

Bubble and Electronic Initiation Mechanism
Electrical Breakdown in Gas Phase
The Townsend Breakdown Mechanism
Spark Breakdown Mechanism
Electron Avalanche for Electrical Breakdown in Liquid Phase
Dense Gas Approximation
Semiconductor Approximation
"Bubble Theory" for Electric Breakdown in Liquid
Bubble Formation: Interface Processes
Bubble Formation: Joule Heating
Bubble Formation: Preexisting Bubbles
Streamer Propagation
Electrostatic Model
Thermal Mechanism
Stability Analysis of the Streamers
Electrostatic Pressure
Surface Tension
Hydrodynamic Pressure
Nanosecond and Subnanosecond Discharge in Water
Fast Imaging of Nanosecond and Subnanosecond Discharge in Water
Ionization of Liquid by E-Impact
Chance of Voids Formation

Decontamination of Volatile Organic Compounds
Conventional Technologies
Mechanism of Plasma Treatment of VOCs
Decomposition of Methanol and Ethanol
Decomposition of Aromatic Compounds
Decomposition of Chlorine-Containing Compounds
Decoloration of Dyes in Wastewater
Decomposition of Freons (Chlorofluorocarbons)
Cleaning of SO2 with Nonthermal Plasma
Acidic Water Case (pH < 6.5)
Neutral and Basic Water Cases (pH > 6.5)

Biological Applications
Plasma Water Sterilization
Previous Studies of Plasma Water Sterilization
New Developments in Plasma Water Sterilization
Plasma Species and Factors for Sterilization
Comparison of Different Plasma Discharges for Water Sterilization
Blood Treatment Using Nonthermal Plasma
In Vitro Blood Coagulation Using Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma
In Vivo Blood Coagulation Using DBD Plasma
Mechanisms of Blood Coagulation Using Nonthermal Plasma

Cooling Water Treatment Using Plasma
Self-Cleaning Filtration Technology with Spark Discharge
Calcium Carbonate Precipitation with Spark Discharge
Effect of Plasma on Cooling Water
Effect of Spray Circulation on Hardness of Cooling Water
Mechanism of Plasma-Induced Calcium Precipitation
Economic Analysis of Plasma Water Treatment
Application for Mineral Fouling Mitigation in Heat Exchangers
Fouling Resistance: Validation Study
Visualization of the Calcium Carbonate Particles
Cycle of Concentration



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Dr. Young I. Cho has been a professor at Drexel University in Philadelphia since 1985. Prior to joining Drexel University, he spent four years at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, as a member of the technical staff. His research interest includes fouling prevention in heat exchangers, physical water treatment using electromagnetic fields, hemorheology, and energy. Currently, he is developing methods of applying low-temperature plasma technology to prevent mineral and biofouling problems in cooling water.

Dr. Alexander Fridman is Nyheim Chair Professor at Drexel University, Philadelphia, and director of the A. J. Drexel Plasma Institute. He develops novel plasma approaches to material treatment, fuel conversion, hydrogen production, aerospace engineering, biology, and environmental control. Recently, significant efforts of Dr. Fridman and his group have been directed to development of plasma medicine, which is a revolutionary breakthrough area of research focused on direct plasma interaction with living tissues and direct plasma application for wound treatment, skin sterilization, blood coagulation, and treatment of different diseases, not previously effectively treated.

Dr. Yong Yang has been an associate professor at the College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) in Wuhan, China, since 2011. Prior to joining HUST, he spent five years at Drexel Plasma Institute, Drexel University, pursuing his PhD degree. His research interests include low-temperature plasma discharges in liquid and atmospheric gas and their applications in environmental, medical, and energy-related fields.


"The approach and selection of topics are relevant to the technology for effective water treatment. The book can be useful to the researchers and students in this field, and can provide practical solutions for water treatment technology. In addition this book may aid knowledge in usage of plasma technology in other liquid domain."
—Rupak K. Banerjee, PhD, PE, Fellow ASME, University of Cincinnati and Kallol Bera, PhD, Applied Materials, Inc., California, USA