Plasma Electronics: Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Plasma Electronics

Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication, 2nd Edition

By Toshiaki Makabe, Zoran Lj. Petrovic

CRC Press

412 pages | 176 B/W Illus.

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Beyond enabling new capabilities, plasma-based techniques, characterized by quantum radicals of feed gases, hold the potential to enhance and improve many processes and applications. Following in the tradition of its popular predecessor, Plasma Electronics, Second Edition: Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication explains the fundamental physics and numerical methods required to bring these technologies from the laboratory to the factory.

Emphasizing computational algorithms and techniques, this updated edition of a popular monograph supplies a complete and up-to-date picture of plasma physics, computational methods, applications, and processing techniques. Reflecting the growing importance of computer-aided approaches to plasma analysis and synthesis, it showcases recent advances in fabrication from micro- and nano-electronics, MEMS/NEMS, and the biological sciences.

A helpful resource for anyone learning about collisional plasma structure, function, and applications, this edition reflects the latest progress in the quantitative understanding of non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma, surface processing, and predictive modeling of the plasma and the process. Filled with new figures, tables, problems, and exercises, it includes a new chapter on the development of atmospheric-pressure plasma, in particular microcell plasma, with a discussion of its practical application to improve surface efficiency.

The book provides an up-to-date discussion of MEMS fabrication and phase transition between capacitive and inductive modes in an inductively coupled plasma. In addition to new sections on the phase transition between the capacitive and inductive modes in an ICP and MOS-transistor and MEMS fabrications, the book presents a new discussion of heat transfer and heating of the media and the reactor.

Integrating physics, numerical methods, and practical applications, this bookequips you with the up-to-date understanding required to scale up lab breakthroughs into industrial innovations.


"This text serves both the expert and the newcomer with background and state-of-the-art knowledge of plasma electronics. It should be on the bookshelf of anyone exploiting plasma technology for device fabrication. Clearly written and well illustrated, it is also suitable as a postgraduate teaching text and, having been updated, may be a standard reference for the next decade."

—Nigel J. Mason, Professor, Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University

"This book is a unique and invaluable source of insight and clarity with special strengths in treating charged particle-neutral collisions, rigorously generalized with proper kinetic theory. This rigor in analyzing discharge physics fundamentals makes the subsequent treatment of plasma modeling and surface modification applications in microelectronics even more valuable. It will no doubt become a standard reference for all scientists and engineers interested in weakly ionized, non-equilibrium plasmas."

—David B. Graves, Professor and Lam Research Distinguished Chair, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley

"… unique in the low-temperature plasma literature for the breadth of its aims and wide-ranging scope, and I would strongly recommend as a reference for postgraduate students in the field."

—Robert E. Robson, Professor, James Cook University

"This book discusses the fundamental principles of partially ionized, chemically reactive plasma discharges and their use in thin film processing … a well-written book for plasma engineers and scientists. … [they] will benefit a lot from this book …"

—Hong-Young Chang, Professor, Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)

"A unique textbook written by two of the most outstanding scientists in the field … A very valuable part of the book is devoted to modeling and numerical simulation … an indispensable source of knowledge and an excellent reference for all kinds of basic phenomena."

—Uwe Czarnetzki, Professor and Chair, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

"The book offers a truly excellent account on the fundamental physics of low-temperature plasmas and applications of low-temperature plasmas to other scientific disciplines and technologies. I strongly recommend this book to both newcomers as a high-standard introductory textbook and experts as a comprehensive reference."

—Satoshi Hamaguchi, Professor, Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University

Table of Contents


Plasma and Its Classification

Application of Low Temperature Plasma

Academic Fusion


Phenomenological Description of the Charged Particle Transport

Transport in Real (Configuration) Space

Momentum Balance of Electrons

Energy Balance of Electrons

Transport in Velocity Space

Electron Velocity Distribution and Swarm Parameters

Ion Velocity Distribution and Mean Energy

Thermal Equilibrium and its Governing Relations

Boltzmann Distribution in Real Space

Maxwell Distribution in Velocity Space


Macroscopic Plasma Characteristics


Quasi Neutrality

Charge separation In Plasmas

Spatial Scale of Charge-Separation

Time Scale for Charge-Separation

Plasma Shielding

Debye Shielding

Metal Probe in a Plasma

Particle Diffusion

Ambipolar Diffusion

Spatial and Time Scale of Diffusion

Bohm Sheath Criterion

Bohm Velocity

Floating Potential


Elementary Processes in Gas Phase and on Surfaces

Particles and Waves

Particle Representation in Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Locally Isolated Particle Group and Wave Packets

Collisions and Cross Sections

Conservation Laws in Collisions

Definition of Collision Cross Sections

The Distribution of Free Paths

Representation of Collisions in Laboratory and CM Reference Frames

Classical Collision Theory

Scattering in Classical Mechanics

Conditions for the Applicability of the Classical Scattering Theory

Quantum Theory Of Scattering

Differential Scattering Cross Section σ(θ)

Modified Effective Range Theory in Electron Scattering

Collisions Between Electrons And Neutral Atoms/Molecules

Resonant Scattering

Electron–Atom Collisions

Energy Levels of Atoms

Electron–Atom Scattering Cross Sections

Electron–Molecule Collisions

Rotational, Vibrational, and Electronic Energy Levels of Molecules

Rotational Excitation

Rotational Energy Levels

Rotational Excitation Cross Sections

Vibrational Excitation

Vibrational Energy Levels

Vibrational Cross Sections

Electronic Excitation and Dissociation

Electronic States of Molecules

Cross Sections for Electronic Excitation of Molecules

Electron Collisions with Excited Atoms and Molecules

Nonconservative Collisions of Electrons With Atoms and Molecules

Electron-Induced Ionization

Electron Attachment

Dissociative Electron Attachment

Nondissociative Electron Attachment

Ion Pair Formation

Electron Attachment to Excited Molecules

Rate Coefficients for Attachment

Electron–Ion and Ion–Ion Recombination

Electron–Ion and Electron–Electron Collisions

Heavy Particle Collisions

Ion–Molecule Collisions

Charge Transfer, Elastic, and Inelastic Scattering of Ions

Ion–Molecule Reactions

Collisions of Fast Neutrals

Collisions of Excited Particles

Chemi-Ionization and Penning Ionization

Collisions of Slow Neutrals and Rate Coefficients

Quenching and Transport of Excited States

Kinetics of Rotational and Vibrational Levels

Photons in Ionized Gases

Emission and Absorption of Line Radiation

Resonant Radiation Trapping

Elementary Processes at Surfaces

Energy Levels of Electrons in Solids

Emission of Electrons from Surfaces


Thermionic Emission

Field-Induced Emission

Potential Ejection of Electrons from Surfaces by Ions and Excited Atoms

Emission of Ions and Neutrals from Surfaces

Surface Neutralization

Surface Ionization



The Boltzmann Equation and Transport Equations of Charged Particles


The Boltzmann Equation

Transport in Phase Space and Derivation of the Boltzmann Equation

Transport Coefficients

The Transport Equation

Conservation of Number Density

Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of Energy

Collision Term In The Boltzmann Equation

Collision Integral

Collision Integral between an Electron and a Gas Molecule

Elastic Collision Term Jelas

Excitation Collision Term Jex

Ionization Collision Term Jion

Electron Attachment Collision Term Jatt

Boltzmann Equation For Electrons

Spherical Harmonics and Their Properties

Velocity Distribution of Electrons

Velocity Distribution under Uniform Number Density: g0

Velocity Distribution Proportional to ∇rn(r, t): g1

Electron Transport Parameters


General Properties of Charged Particle Transport in Gases


Electron Transport In DC Electric Fields

Electron Drift Velocity

Diffusion Coefficients

Mean Energy of Electrons

Excitation, Ionization, and Electron Attachment Rates

Electron Transport in Radio Frequency Electric Fields

Relaxation Time Constants

Effective Field Approximation

Expansion Procedure

Direct Numerical Procedure

Time-Varying Swarm Parameters

Ion Transport In Dc Electric Fields


Modeling of Nonequilibrium (Low Temperature) Plasmas


Continuum Models

Governing Equations of a Continuum Model

Local Field Approximation (LFA)

Quasi-Thermal Equilibrium (QTE) Model

Relaxation Continuum (RCT) Model

Phase Space Kinetic Model

Particle Models

Monte Carlo Simulations (MCSs)

Particle-in-Cell (PIC) and Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation (PIC/MCS) Models

Hybrid Models

Circuit Model

Equivalent Circuit Model in CCP

Equivalent Circuit Model in ICP

Transmission-Line Model (TLM)

Electromagnetic Fields and Maxwell’s Equations

Coulomb’s Law, Gauss’s Law, and Poisson’s Equation

Faraday’s Law

Ampere’s Law

Maxwell’s Equations


Numerical Procedure of Modeling

Time Constant of the System

Collision-Oriented Relaxation Time

Plasma Species-Oriented Time Constant

Plasma-Oriented Time Constant/Dielectric Relaxation Time

Numerical Techniques To Solve The Time Dependent Drift

Diffusion Equation

Time-Evolution Method

Finite Difference

Digitalization and Stabilization

Time Discretization and Accuracy

Scharfetter–Gummel Method

Cubic Interpolated Pseudoparticle Method

Semi-Implicit Method for Solving Poisson’s Equation

Boundary Conditions

Ideal Boundary — Without Surface Interactions

Dirichlet Condition

Neumann Condition

Periodicity Condition

Electrode Surface

Metallic Electrode

Dielectric Electrode

Boundary Conditions with Charge Exchange

Boundary Conditions with Mass Transport

Plasma Etching

Plasma Deposition

Plasma Sputtering

Moving Boundary under Processing


Capacitively Coupled Plasma

Radio Frequency Capacitive Coupling

Mechanism of Plasma Maintenance

Low-Frequency Plasma

High-Frequency Plasma

Electronegative Plasma

Very High-Frequency Plasma

Two-Frequency Plasma

Pulsed Two-Frequency Plasma


Inductively Coupled Plasma

Radio Frequency Inductive Coupling

Mechanism of Plasma Maintenance

E-mode and H-mode

Mechanism of Plasma Maintenance

Effect of Metastables

Function of ICP

Phase Transition Between E-Mode and H-Mode in an ICP

Wave Propagation in Plasmas

Plasma and Skin Depth

ICP and the Skin Depth


Magnetically Enhanced Plasma

Direct Current Magnetron Plasma

Unbalanced Magnetron Plasma

Radio Frequency Magnetron Plasma

Magnetic Confinements Of Plasmas

Magnetically Resonant Plasmas


Plasma Processing and Related Topics


Physical Sputtering

Target Erosion

Sputtered Particle Transport

Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

Plasma CVD

Large-Area Deposition with High Rate

Plasma Etching

Wafer Bias

On Electrically Isolated Wafers (without Radio-Frequency Bias)

On Wafers with Radio-Frequency Bias

Selection of Feed Gas

Si or Poly-Si Etching

Al Etching

SiO2 Etching

Feature Profile Evolution

Plasma Bosch Process

Charging Damage

Surface Continuity and Conductivity

Charging Damage to Lower Thin Elements in ULSI

Thermal Damage

Specific Fabrication of MOS Transistor

Gate Etching

Contact Hole Etching

Low-K Etching

MEMS Fabrication


Atmospheric Pressure, Low Temperature Plasma

High Pressure, Low Temperature Plasma

Fundamental Process

Historical Development

Micro Plasma

Radiofrequency Atmospheric Micro-Plasma Source

Gas Heating in a Plasma

Effect of Local Gas Heating



About the Authors

Toshiaki Makabe received his BSc, MSc, and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering all from Keio University. He became a Professor of Electronics and Electrical Engineering in the Faculty of Science and Technology at Keio University in 1991. He also served as a guest professor at POSTECH, Ruhr University Bochum, and Xi’an Jiaotong University. He was Dean of the Faculty of Science and Technology and Chair of the Graduate School from 2007 to 2009. Since 2009, he has been the Vice-President of Keio University in charge of research. He has published more than 170 papers in peer-reviewed international journals, and has given invited talks at more than 80 international conferences in the field of non-equilibrium, low-temperature plasmas and related basic transport theory, and surface processes. He is on the editorial board of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, and many times he has been a guest editor of the special issue about the low temperature plasma and the surface process of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Australian Journal of Physics, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, and Applied Surface Science, etc. He received the awards; "Fluid Science Prize" in 2003 from the Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, "Plasma Electronics Prize" in 2004 from the Japan Society of Applied Physics, "Plasma Prize" in 2006 from the American Vacuum Society, etc. He is an associate member of the Science Council of Japan, and a foreign member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. He is a fellow of the Institute of Physics, the American Vacuum Society, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, and the Japan Federation of Engineering Societies.

Zoran Lj. Petrovic obtained his Master’s degree in the Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering in the University of Belgrade, and earned his Ph.D from Australian National University. He is the Head of the Department of Experimental Physics in the Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade. He has taught postgraduate courses in microelectronics, plasma kinetics and diagnostics and was a visiting professor in Keio University (Yokohama, Japan). He has received the Nikola Tesla award for technological achievement and the Marko Jaric Award for Great Achievement in Physics. He is a full member of the Academy of Engineering Sciences of Serbia and Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts where he chairs the department of engineering science. Zoran Petrovic is a fellow of American Physical Society, vice president of the National Scientific Council of Serbia, and president of the Association of Scientific Institutes of Serbia. He is a member of editorial boards of Plasma Sources Science and Technology and Europena Physical Journal D. He has authored or co-authored over 220 papers in leading international scientific journals, and has given more than 90 invited talks at professional conferences. His research interests include atomic and molecular collisions in ionized gases, transport phenomena in ionized gases, gas breakdown, RF and DC plasmas for plasma processing, plasma medicine, positron collisions and traps, and basic properties of gas discharges.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Physics
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Microelectronics