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Plasma Electronics
Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication





ISBN 9781138034150
Published October 26, 2016 by CRC Press
412 Pages 176 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Beyond enabling new capabilities, plasma-based techniques, characterized by quantum radicals of feed gases, hold the potential to enhance and improve many processes and applications. Following in the tradition of its popular predecessor, Plasma Electronics, Second Edition: Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication explains the fundamental physics and numerical methods required to bring these technologies from the laboratory to the factory.

Emphasizing computational algorithms and techniques, this updated edition of a popular monograph supplies a complete and up-to-date picture of plasma physics, computational methods, applications, and processing techniques. Reflecting the growing importance of computer-aided approaches to plasma analysis and synthesis, it showcases recent advances in fabrication from micro- and nano-electronics, MEMS/NEMS, and the biological sciences.

A helpful resource for anyone learning about collisional plasma structure, function, and applications, this edition reflects the latest progress in the quantitative understanding of non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma, surface processing, and predictive modeling of the plasma and the process. Filled with new figures, tables, problems, and exercises, it includes a new chapter on the development of atmospheric-pressure plasma, in particular microcell plasma, with a discussion of its practical application to improve surface efficiency.

The book provides an up-to-date discussion of MEMS fabrication and phase transition between capacitive and inductive modes in an inductively coupled plasma. In addition to new sections on the phase transition between the capacitive and inductive modes in an ICP and MOS-transistor and MEMS fabrications, the book presents a new discussion of heat transfer and heating of the media and the reactor.

Integrating physics, numerical methods, and practical applications, this book equips you with the up-to-date understanding required to scale up lab breakthroughs into industrial innovations.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Plasma and Its Classification
Application of Low Temperature Plasma
Academic Fusion
References

Phenomenological Description of the Charged Particle Transport
Transport in Real (Configuration) Space
     Momentum Balance of Electrons 
     Energy Balance of Electrons
Transport in Velocity Space 
     Electron Velocity Distribution and Swarm Parameters 
     Ion Velocity Distribution and Mean Energy
Thermal Equilibrium and its Governing Relations
     Boltzmann Distribution in Real Space 
     Maxwell Distribution in Velocity Space
References

Macroscopic Plasma Characteristics
Introduction
Quasi Neutrality
Charge separation In Plasmas 
     Spatial Scale of Charge-Separation 
     Time Scale for Charge-Separation
Plasma Shielding 
     Debye Shielding 
     Metal Probe in a Plasma
Particle Diffusion 
     Ambipolar Diffusion 
     Spatial and Time Scale of Diffusion
Bohm Sheath Criterion 
     Bohm Velocity 
     Floating Potential
References

Elementary Processes in Gas Phase and on Surfaces
Particles and Waves
     Particle Representation in Classical and Quantum Mechanics 
     Locally Isolated Particle Group and Wave Packets
Collisions and Cross Sections 
     Conservation Laws in Collisions 
     Definition of Collision Cross Sections 
     The Distribution of Free Paths 
     Representation of Collisions in Laboratory and CM Reference Frames
Classical Collision Theory
     Scattering in Classical Mechanics 
     Conditions for the Applicability of the Classical Scattering Theory
Quantum Theory Of Scattering
     Differential Scattering Cross Section σ(θ)
     Modified Effective Range Theory in Electron Scattering
Collisions Between Electrons And Neutral Atoms/Molecules 
     Resonant Scattering
Electron–Atom Collisions 
     Energy Levels of Atoms 
     Electron–Atom Scattering Cross Sections
Electron–Molecule Collisions 
      Rotational, Vibrational, and Electronic Energy Levels of Molecules 
     Rotational Excitation 
          Rotational Energy Levels 
          Rotational Excitation Cross Sections 
     Vibrational Excitation
          Vibrational Energy Levels
          Vibrational Cross Sections 
     Electronic Excitation and Dissociation 
          Electronic States of Molecules 
          Cross Sections for Electronic Excitation of Molecules 
     Electron Collisions with Excited Atoms and Molecules
Nonconservative Collisions of Electrons With Atoms and Molecules 
     Electron-Induced Ionization 
     Electron Attachment 
          Dissociative Electron Attachment 
          Nondissociative Electron Attachment
          Ion Pair Formation 
          Electron Attachment to Excited Molecules 
          Rate Coefficients for Attachment
     Electron–Ion and Ion–Ion Recombination 
     Electron–Ion and Electron–Electron Collisions
Heavy Particle Collisions 
     Ion–Molecule Collisions 
          Charge Transfer, Elastic, and Inelastic Scattering of Ions 
          Ion–Molecule Reactions 
     Collisions of Fast Neutrals 
     Collisions of Excited Particles 
          Chemi-Ionization and Penning Ionization
     Collisions of Slow Neutrals and Rate Coefficients 
          Quenching and Transport of Excited States 
          Kinetics of Rotational and Vibrational Levels
Photons in Ionized Gases 
     Emission and Absorption of Line Radiation 
     Resonant Radiation Trapping
Elementary Processes at Surfaces 
     Energy Levels of Electrons in Solids 
     Emission of Electrons from Surfaces 
          Photo-Emission 
          Thermionic Emission 
          Field-Induced Emission 
          Potential Ejection of Electrons from Surfaces by Ions and Excited Atoms 
     Emission of Ions and Neutrals from Surfaces 
          Surface Neutralization 
          Surface Ionization 
          Adsorption
References

The Boltzmann Equation and Transport Equations of Charged Particles
Introduction
The Boltzmann Equation 
     Transport in Phase Space and Derivation of the Boltzmann Equation
Transport Coefficients
The Transport Equation
     Conservation of Number Density 
     Conservation of Momentum 
     Conservation of Energy
Collision Term In The Boltzmann Equation 
     Collision Integral
     Collision Integral between an Electron and a Gas Molecule 
          Elastic Collision Term Jelas 
          Excitation Collision Term Jex 
          Ionization Collision Term Jion 
          Electron Attachment Collision Term Jatt
Boltzmann Equation For Electrons
     Spherical Harmonics and Their Properties 
     Velocity Distribution of Electrons 
          Velocity Distribution under Uniform Number Density: g0 
          Velocity Distribution Proportional to ∇rn(r, t): g1 
     Electron Transport Parameters
References

General Properties of Charged Particle Transport in Gases
Introduction
Electron Transport In DC Electric Fields 
     Electron Drift Velocity
     Diffusion Coefficients
     Mean Energy of Electrons 
     Excitation, Ionization, and Electron Attachment Rates
Electron Transport in Radio Frequency Electric Fields
     Relaxation Time Constants
     Effective Field Approximation
     Expansion Procedure 
     Direct Numerical Procedure 
     Time-Varying Swarm Parameters
Ion Transport In Dc Electric Fields
References

Modeling of Nonequilibrium (Low Temperature) Plasmas
Introduction
Continuum Models 
     Governing Equations of a Continuum Model 
     Local Field Approximation (LFA) 
     Quasi-Thermal Equilibrium (QTE) Model
     Relaxation Continuum (RCT) Model 
     Phase Space Kinetic Model
Particle Models 
     Monte Carlo Simulations (MCSs)
     Particle-in-Cell (PIC) and Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation (PIC/MCS) Models
Hybrid Models
Circuit Model
     Equivalent Circuit Model in CCP
     Equivalent Circuit Model in ICP
     Transmission-Line Model (TLM)
Electromagnetic Fields and Maxwell’s Equations 
     Coulomb’s Law, Gauss’s Law, and Poisson’s Equation 
     Faraday’s Law
     Ampere’s Law 
     Maxwell’s Equations
References

Numerical Procedure of Modeling
Time Constant of the System
     Collision-Oriented Relaxation Time
     Plasma Species-Oriented Time Constant 
     Plasma-Oriented Time Constant/Dielectric Relaxation Time
Numerical Techniques To Solve The Time Dependent Drift
Diffusion Equation 
     Time-Evolution Method 
          Finite Difference 
          Digitalization and Stabilization 
          Time Discretization and Accuracy 
     Scharfetter–Gummel Method 
     Cubic Interpolated Pseudoparticle Method
     Semi-Implicit Method for Solving Poisson’s Equation
Boundary Conditions 
     Ideal Boundary — Without Surface Interactions 
          Dirichlet Condition 
          Neumann Condition 
          Periodicity Condition
     Electrode Surface 
          Metallic Electrode 
          Dielectric Electrode 
     Boundary Conditions with Charge Exchange 
     Boundary Conditions with Mass Transport 
          Plasma Etching
          Plasma Deposition
          Plasma Sputtering 
     Moving Boundary under Processing
References

Capacitively Coupled Plasma
Radio Frequency Capacitive Coupling
Mechanism of Plasma Maintenance
     Low-Frequency Plasma 
     High-Frequency Plasma
     Electronegative Plasma
     Very High-Frequency Plasma
     Two-Frequency Plasma
     Pulsed Two-Frequency Plasma
References

Inductively Coupled Plasma
Radio Frequency Inductive Coupling
Mechanism of Plasma Maintenance
     E-mode and H-mode 
     Mechanism of Plasma Maintenance
     Effect of Metastables 
     Function of ICP
Phase Transition Between E-Mode and H-Mode in an ICP
Wave Propagation in Plasmas
     Plasma and Skin Depth 
     ICP and the Skin Depth
References

Magnetically Enhanced Plasma
Direct Current Magnetron Plasma
Unbalanced Magnetron Plasma
Radio Frequency Magnetron Plasma
Magnetic Confinements Of Plasmas
Magnetically Resonant Plasmas
References

Plasma Processing and Related Topics
Introduction
Physical Sputtering
     Target Erosion
     Sputtered Particle Transport
Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition
     Plasma CVD
     Large-Area Deposition with High Rate
Plasma Etching
     Wafer Bias 
          On Electrically Isolated Wafers (without Radio-Frequency Bias) 
          On Wafers with Radio-Frequency Bias 
     Selection of Feed Gas 
     Si or Poly-Si Etching
     Al Etching
     SiO2 Etching 
     Feature Profile Evolution 
     Plasma Bosch Process 
     Charging Damage 
          Surface Continuity and Conductivity 
          Charging Damage to Lower Thin Elements in ULSI 
     Thermal Damage
     Specific Fabrication of MOS Transistor 
          Gate Etching 
          Contact Hole Etching 
          Low-K Etching
     MEMS Fabrication
References

Atmospheric Pressure, Low Temperature Plasma
High Pressure, Low Temperature Plasma 
     Fundamental Process 
     Historical Development
Micro Plasma
     Radiofrequency Atmospheric Micro-Plasma Source
     Gas Heating in a Plasma
     Effect of Local Gas Heating
References
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Toshiaki Makabe received his BSc, MSc, and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering all from Keio University. He became a Professor of Electronics and Electrical Engineering in the Faculty of Science and Technology at Keio University in 1991. He also served as a guest professor at POSTECH, Ruhr University Bochum, and Xi’an Jiaotong University. He was Dean of the Faculty of Science and Technology and Chair of the Graduate School from 2007 to 2009. Since 2009, he has been the Vice-President of Keio University in charge of research. He has published more than 170 papers in peer-reviewed international journals, and has given invited talks at more than 80 international conferences in the field of non-equilibrium, low-temperature plasmas and related basic transport theory, and surface processes. He is on the editorial board of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, and many times he has been a guest editor of the special issue about the low temperature plasma and the surface process of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Australian Journal of Physics, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, and Applied Surface Science, etc. He received the awards; "Fluid Science Prize" in 2003 from the Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, "Plasma Electronics Prize" in 2004 from the Japan Society of Applied Physics, "Plasma Prize" in 2006 from the American Vacuum Society, etc. He is an associate member of the Science Council of Japan, and a foreign member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. He is a fellow of the Institute of Physics, the American Vacuum Society, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, and the Japan Federation of Engineering Societies.

Zoran Lj. Petrovic obtained his Master’s degree in the Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering in the University of Belgrade, and earned his Ph.D from Australian National University. He is the Head of the Department of Experimental Physics in the Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade. He has taught postgraduate courses in microelectronics, plasma kinetics and diagnostics and was a visiting professor in Keio University (Yokohama, Japan). He has received the Nikola Tesla award for technological achievement and the Marko Jaric Award for Great Achievement in Physics. He is a full member of the Academy of Engineering Sciences of Serbia and Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts where he chairs the department of engineering science. Zoran Petrovic is a fellow of American Physical Society, vice president of the National Scientific Council of Serbia, and president of the Association of Scientific Institutes of Serbia. He is a member of editorial boards of Plasma Sources Science and Technology and Europena Physical Journal D. He has authored or co-authored over 220 papers in leading international scientific journals, and has given more than 90 invited talks at professional conferences. His research interests include atomic and molecular collisions in ionized gases, transport phenomena in ionized gases, gas breakdown, RF and DC plasmas for plasma processing, plasma medicine, positron collisions and traps, and basic properties of gas discharges.

Reviews

"This text serves both the expert and the newcomer with background and state-of-the-art knowledge of plasma electronics. It should be on the bookshelf of anyone exploiting plasma technology for device fabrication. Clearly written and well illustrated, it is also suitable as a postgraduate teaching text and, having been updated, may be a standard reference for the next decade."
—Nigel J. Mason, Professor, Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University

"This book is a unique and invaluable source of insight and clarity with special strengths in treating charged particle-neutral collisions, rigorously generalized with proper kinetic theory. This rigor in analyzing discharge physics fundamentals makes the subsequent treatment of plasma modeling and surface modification applications in microelectronics even more valuable. It will no doubt become a standard reference for all scientists and engineers interested in weakly ionized, non-equilibrium plasmas."
—David B. Graves, Professor and Lam Research Distinguished Chair, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley

"… unique in the low-temperature plasma literature for the breadth of its aims and wide-ranging scope, and I would strongly recommend as a reference for postgraduate students in the field."
—Robert E. Robson, Professor, James Cook University

"This book discusses the fundamental principles of partially ionized, chemically reactive plasma discharges and their use in thin film processing … a well-written book for plasma engineers and scientists. … [they] will benefit a lot from this book …"
—Hong-Young Chang, Professor, Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)

"A unique textbook written by two of the most outstanding scientists in the field … A very valuable part of the book is devoted to modeling and numerical simulation … an indispensable source of knowledge and an excellent reference for all kinds of basic phenomena."
—Uwe Czarnetzki, Professor and Chair, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

"The book offers a truly excellent account on the fundamental physics of low-temperature plasmas and applications of low-temperature plasmas to other scientific disciplines and technologies. I strongly recommend this book to both newcomers as a high-standard introductory textbook and experts as a comprehensive reference."
—Satoshi Hamaguchi, Professor, Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University