Police Performance Appraisals: A Comparative Perspective, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Police Performance Appraisals

A Comparative Perspective, 1st Edition

By Serdar Kenan Gul, Paul O'Connell

CRC Press

184 pages | 9 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781439839461
pub: 2012-09-24
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Police performance appraisal is one of the most important components of law enforcement management—affecting the quality of the services a department delivers as well as the satisfaction of its employees. Therefore, it is crucial that the performance appraisal process is conducted in an effective and equitable manner. Police Performance Appraisals: A Comparative Perspective employs the comparative case study approach to evaluate systems in police departments in two diverse locales—Ankara, Turkey and Toledo, Ohio. The study seeks to determine whether there are any common trends or obvious similarities that transcend national and cultural boundaries. From this information, best practices can be identified to improve the system of any police organization.

The data from the survey raises a host of issues essential to police management. Are traditional or modern appraisal systems more preferable to police personnel? Are field and command officers’ perceptions of the performance evaluation instruments in their departments similar or do they differ from those of their subordinates? Asking these and other critical questions, the authors also examine the relationship between the officer’s perception of the appraisal system and his or her rank, taking into account level of education, gender, age, and years of service.

Employing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, this study yields important findings and valuable insights for police organizations as to which characteristics an appraisal process should have for the best quality system. Lessons learned from this study should provide guidance to future efforts to design better appraisal systems and may also contribute to heightened focus on nationwide assessments of evaluation practices and standards for police organizations.

Table of Contents


A New Era of Policing

The Need for Individual Performance Appraisal

Theoretical Background

Purpose of the Book

Organization of the Book

Appraising the Performance of Police Officers

Definition of the Performance Appraisal

History of the Performance Appraisal

Purpose of the Performance Appraisal

Performance Appraisal Methods

Personal Characteristics Based

Behaviorally Based

Goal Based

Various Sources of Appraisal

Supervisory Appraisal

Peer Appraisal


Subordinate Appraisal

Multisource Appraisal

Frequency of the Performance Appraisal

Known Problems Associated With Employee Performance Appraisal

Halo Effect

Primacy and Recency Effects

Central Tendency

Designing and Using an Effective Police Performance Appraisal System

Elements of an Effective Performance Appraisal System

Evaluation of Supervisors and Officers Assigned to "Special" Units

The Postevaluation Meeting

Legal Issues Related to Performance Appraisal

Comparative Study of the Performance Appraisal Systems in Ankara and Toledo Police Departments

Turkish National Police (TNP) Organization

Performance Appraisal System in Ankara Police Department

Police Organization in the United States

Performance Appraisal System in Toledo Police Department

Comparison and Discussion

Police Attitudes Toward Performance Appraisal Systems: A Survey of Ankara and Toledo Police Departments



Data Collection

Null Hypotheses


Factor Analysis

Regression Analysis

Dependent Variables

Perceived Objectivity of the Appraisal System

Perceived Effectiveness of the Appraisal System

Independent Variable

Control Variables


Demographic Characteristics of the Survey Respondents in Ankara PD

Demographic Characteristics of the Survey Respondents in Toledo PD

Reactions to the Objectivity (Fairness) of the Appraisal System

Reactions to the Effectiveness (Utility) of the Appraisal System

Respondents’ Attitudes on the Nature of Appraisal

Sources of the Appraisal

Frequency of the Appraisal

Basis of the Appraisal

Discussion and Conclusion

Recommendations for Future Research


Appendix A: Survey Instrument

Appendix B: Descriptive Statistics of the Variables

Appendix C: Correlation Matrix for All the Variables


About the Authors

Serdar Kenan Gul’s research interests include police management, performance appraisal, comparative criminal justice, and quantitative research methods. After working at different units of the Turkish National Police Organization as a ranking officer for almost 15 years, Dr. Gul is currently an associate professor and researcher at the Center for Security Management and a faculty member at the College of Security Sciences at Turkish National Police Academy. He teaches human resources management, public administration, and police management courses. He is also editor for the Turkish Journal of Police Studies, a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Paul O’Connell has been a full-time member of the criminal justice faculty at Iona College in New Rochelle, New York, since 1994. He began his professional career in criminal justice in 1981, serving the New York City Police Department (NYPD) first as a police officer, and then as a police academy instructor, in-service trainer, and curriculum developer. After receiving an MPA and JD, he worked as a trial attorney. He teaches at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, conducts funded research, and lectures widely on the topics of police performance measurement, integrity management, and law enforcement training systems.

About the Series

Advances in Police Theory and Practice

Presenting volumes that focus on the nexus between research and practice, the Advances in Police Theory and Practice series is geared toward those practitioners and academics seeking to implement the latest innovations in policing from across the world. This series draws from an international community of experts who examine who the police are, what they do, and how they maintain order, administer laws, and serve their communities.

The series eeditor encourages the contribution of works coauthored by police practitioners and researchers. Proposals for contributions to the series may be submitted to the series editor Dilip Das at dilipkd@aol.com.

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW / Criminal Law / General
LAW / Forensic Science