The book covers Indian agricultural development from the colonial to the present period. It examines how ruling class political ideology determined the agricultural policies from colonial rule. It considers both quantitative and qualitative aspects in all periods: colonial period to pre-green revolution phase, post-green revolution phase (early and late stages) and post-globalisation phase after 1991. India has achieved the ability to maintain food security, through enough food grain buffer stocks to meet the enormous public distribution system. But, with India’s entry into WTO in 1994, euphoria has been created among all types of farmers to adopt commercial crops like cotton cost-intensive inputs. Even food grain crops are grown through use of costly irrigation and chemicalised inputs. But they lacked remunerative prices, and so farmers began to commit suicides, which crossed 3.5 lakh. Government of India attributed this agrarian crisis to the technology fatigue and gave scope for second green revolution (GR-II). GR-I was achieved by public sector enterprise, whereas the GR-II as gene revolution is a result of private sector enterprise/MNCs. There is fear that opening up of the sector may lead to handover of the family farms to big agri-multinationals. GOI’s proposal to double farmers’ income by 2022 is feasible only when the problems, being faced by small, marginal and tenant farmers, are addressed in agricultural marketing, credit and extension services. Now, it is time to go for suitable forms of cooperative/collective agriculture, as 85 percent of total cultivators are the small and marginal farmers.
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Table of Contents
Part 1 1. Political Economy: Perspective and Objective 2. Political Economy of Agrarian Question: Dialectical Interaction of Institutional and Technological Changes Part 2 3. Political Economy of the British Colonial Policies in Pre-Independent India and their Impact on India’s Agriculture 4. Land Reforms in India: Implementation in the Post-Independence Period 5. Pattern of Land Distribution by Ownership and Operation, and Tenancy by Operation Part 3 6. Political Economy of the US Exports of Food and Prescription for Increasing Food Production in Pre-Green Revolution 7. Political Economy of the US Export of the Green Revolution to India 8. Performance of Indian Agriculture: Pre-Green, Early-Green and Late-Green Revolution Phases 9. Costs and Imbalances Caused by the Green Revolution in Its Early and Late Phases Part 4 10. Political Economy of Adoption of Neoliberal Policies in India and India’s Entry into WTO 11. Political Economy of Special Economic Zones (SEZs): Another Neoliberal Agenda for Land Grabs 12. Political Economy of the Second Green Revolution, Biotechnologies and Genetically Modified Seeds 13. Agricultural Performance Under Neoliberal Globalization and WTO Regime 14. Impact of Globalization and WTO on India’s Agricultural Exports, Imports, Employment and Consumption Pattern 15. Agricultural Capitalism in India Could Not Establish “Either from Above or from Below” Part 5 16. Agricultural Credit in India: Expansion and Problems 17. Agricultural Marketing System and Its Functioning in India 18. Agricultural Extension Services in India: New Initiatives and New Institutions Part 6 19. Public Distribution System and Food Security in India 20. Procurement of Foodgrains in India Part 7 21. Agrarian Crisis in India After Neoliberal Globalization and WTO Policies: Some Concerns 22. Summary and Conclusion
Akina Venkateswarlu worked for 16 years in Telangana Government Colleges and for about 7 years at the Centre for Economic and Social Studies (CESS), Hyderabad. He was an ICSSR Senior Fellow (2012-14) at CESS. Since retirement at 58 (in 2009), he has been a consultant at CESS.