Polymer Characterization : Physical Techniques, 2nd Edition book cover
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Polymer Characterization
Physical Techniques, 2nd Edition





ISBN 9780748740055
Published September 27, 2000 by CRC Press
481 Pages

 
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Book Description

Discerning the properties of polymers and polymer-based materials requires a good understanding of characterization. This revised and updated text provides a comprehensive survey of characterization methods within its simple, concise chapters.

Polymer Characterization: Physical Techniques, provides an overview of a wide variety of characterization methods, which makes it an excellent textbook and reference. It starts with a description of basic polymer science, providing a solid foundation from which to understand the key physical characterization techniques. The authors explain physical principles without heavy theory and give special emphasis to the application of the techniques to polymers, with plenty of illustrations. Topics covered include molecular weight determination, molecular and structural characterization by spectroscopic techniques, morphology and structural characterization by microscopy and diffraction, and thermal analysis. This edition contains a new chapter on surface analysis as well as some revised problems and solutions.

The concise treatment of each topic offers even those with little prior knowledge of the subject an accessible source to relevant, simple descriptions in a well-organized format.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION: PRELIMINARY SURVEY


The Purpose of Characterization
Molecular Architecture
Amorphous Polymers
Crystallizing Polymers
Survey of Characterization Techniques
References
Further Reading

MOLECULAR MASS DETERMINATION


Introduction
Primary Methods
Secondary Methods
Other Methods
Conclusions
Further Reading
Exercises
INTRODUCTION TO SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES
General Remarks
Strategy in Spectroscopic Studies
Energy Level Calculations
Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation
Double Beam Optics
Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
References

ULTRAVIOLET-VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY


Introduction
Instrumentation
Theoretical Estimation of Electronic Energy Levels
Application to Polymers
References
VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY: INFRARED AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
Fundamentals of Vibrational Spectroscopy
Experimental Techniques
Applications to Polymers
Raman Analysis
Near-Infrared (NIR)
Conclusions
References
NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY
Introduction
Principles of Magnetic Resonance
Experimental Techniques
Applications of NMR to Polymers
NMR of Polymers in the Solid State
Two-Dimensional NMR
NMR Imaging
Conclusions
References
Exercises

ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY


Introduction
Basic Theory
Experimental Considerations
Polymerization Studies
Radiation Effects in Polymers
Mechanical Degradation
Thermal Degradation
Relaxation Studies
ESR Imaging
Conclusions
Further Reading
Exercises

XRAY DIFFRACTION


Introduction
Generation and Properties of X-rays
Diffraction Theory
Practical Aspects
Applications to Polymer Characterization
Conclusions
References
Further Reading
Exercises
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND DIFFRACTION
Introduction
Layout of the TEM
Resolution Limitation
Electron Diffraction
Image Contrast
Operating Conditions and Procedures for Beam-sensitive Materials
Polymer Studies in TEM
Multiple Dark Field Imaging
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
References
Further Reading
Exercises

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY


Introduction
Design and Operation of the SEM
Observation of Polymers in the SEM
Examples of SEM Applications with Polymers
Conclusions
Further Reading
Exercises

LIGHT OPTICAL TECHNIQUES


Introduction
Refractive Index
Birefringence
Light Microscopy
Small Angle Light Scattering
References
Further Reading
Advanced Reading
Exercises

THERMAL ANALYSIS


Introduction
Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
Thermomechanical Analysis
Thermogravimetric Analysis
Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis
Dielectric Thermal Analysis (DETA)
References
DENSITY, SURFACE PROPERTIES AND NEUTRON DIFFRACTION
Density
Surface Analysis of Polymeric Materials
Chemical Analysis of the Polymer Surface
Surface Probe or Scanning Tip Microscopy
Neutron Scattering Studies
References
Further Reading
Exercises

MULTIPLE CHARACTERIZATION APPLICATIONS


The Structure of a Spherulite
Skin-core Characterization in Moulded Polymers
Weathering of Polymers
Particular Studies
Conclusions
References
THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS OF THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Introduction
Types of Approach Available for Modelling Polymer Physical Properties
Molecular Based Structural Additivity Calculations
Ab initio Calculations of Polymeric Properties
References
APPENDIX
INDEX

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Reviews

“This book contains fifteen chapters and aims to give a comprehensive coverage of methods used to identify and characterize polymers. It is intended for second and third year students of Materials Science, Polymer Technology or Chemistry as well as scientists and technologists working in the polymer industry. Although designed to be self-contained, background knowledge of thermodynamics and polymer science would be useful in suing the book. … The level of the material is entirely appropriate to the target audience, and the writing is clear and well constructed. … Overall, this is a very good collection of materials which should allow students to generate the necessary background knowledge before proceeding to the laboratory.”
—Gareth Price, Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, in Physical Sciences Educational Reviews, Vol. 7, Issue I, May 2006