1st Edition

Polymer Films in Sensor Applications

By Gabor Harsanyi Copyright 1995
    462 Pages
    by CRC Press

    464 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Polymer films now play an essential and growing role in sensors. Recent advances in polymer science and film preparation have made polymer films useful, practical and economical in a wide range of sensor designs and applications. Further, the continuing miniaturization of microelectronics favors the use of polymer thin films in sensors.
    This new book is the first comprehensive presentation of this technology. It covers both scientific fundamentals and practical engineering aspects. Included is an extensive survey of all types of sensors and applications. The very detailed table of contents in the next pages provides full information on content. More than 200 schematics illustrate a wide variety of sensor structures and their function.

    Foreword, Preface
    Sensors and Their Characteristics
    Polymers and Their Properties

    Sensor Technologies
    Monolithic Semiconductor Processing: Silicon Single Crystal, Epitaxial Growth, Structuring Silicon, Lithography and Etching, Anisotropic Etching, Doping Techniques, Integrated Processing
    Processing of Ceramics and Glasses: Microstructure of Ceramics, Manufacturing of Ceramics, Microstructure and Behaviour of Glasses, Manufacturing of Glasses
    Thin- and Thick-Film Technologies: Thin-Film Processing, Thick-Film Processing, Polymer Thick-Film Technology
    Processing of Microsensor Polymer Films: Processing of Photosensitive Polymers, Photolithography of Nonphotosensitive Polymers, Printing of Polymers, Electrochemical Polymerization, Vacuum-Deposited Polymer Films, Other Polymer Film Technologies
    References and Supplementary Reading

    Sensor Structures with Sensitive Polymers
    Impedance-Type Sensors
    Semiconductor-Based Sensors: Field Effect Principle, Other Semiconductor Sensors
    Resonant Sensors: BAW Sensors, SAW Sensors, Other Resonator-Type Sensors
    Electrochemical Cells: Potentiometric Sensors, Amperometric Sensors, Other Types of Electrochemical Measurements
    Calorimetric Sensors
    Fibre-Optic Sensors: Optrode-Style Sensors, Core-Based Sensors, Coating-Based Sensors, Interferometric Sensors, Other Fibre-Optic Sensor Types
    References and Supplementary Reading

    Sensing Effects and Sensitive Polymers
    Sensing Effects Based on Dielectric Behaviour: Piezoelectric Effect and Piezoelectric Polymers, Polymer Electrets, Pyroelectricity in Polymers, Sensing Effects Based on Permittivity Changes
    Sensing Effects in Conductive Polymer Composites: Theory of Conduction Mechanism, Pressure and Deformation Sensitivity, Temperature Dependence, Gas Sensitivity of Metal Polymer Composites, Humidity Sensitive Behaviour
    Sensing Effects of Polymer Electrolytes: Model for Conduction and Sensing Mechanisms, Chemically Sensitive Polymer Electrolytes, Humidity-Sensitive Behaviour of Polymer Electrolytes
    Sorbent Polymer Coatings for Chemical Sensors: Sensor Responses and the Partition Coefficient, Fundamental Interactions Contributing to Sorption, Linear Solvation Energy Relationships, Selected Polymer Examples, Polymer Design, Sensors and Sensor Arrays
    Selective Chemical Sensing: Molecular Recognition with Polymeric Layers and Cage Compounds: Fundamentals of Molecular Recognition: Recognition Sites in Polymeric and Supramolecular Compounds, Bulk Absorption of Molecules in Polysiloxane Layers, Surface Adsorption and Bulk Absorption of Molecules in Calixarene Layers, Surface Adsorption of Organic Solvent Molecules in H"gbergarene Layers; Specific Sensor Responses of Polymer-Based Chemical Sensors: Survey of the Sensing Principles, Quartz Microbalance Transducers: Mass Changes as Sensor Responses, Calorimetric Transducers: Temperature Changes as Sensor Responses, Capacitance Transducers: Changes of Dielectric Properties and Thicknesses as Sensor Responses, Optical Transducers: Changes of Thicknesses as Sensor Responses
    Polymeric Separation Membranes: Permeability and Permselectivity, Separation Process, Behaviour of Polymers
    Polymers in Ion Sensitive Membranes: Background: Behaviour Required of Membrane for Nernst Response, Behaviour Required for Rapid Response, Behavior Required for Low Impedance System, Behaviour Required for Long-Term Stability; Bulk Properties of Membranes: Dielectric Constant of Plasticized PVC, Ionic Conductivity of Plasticized PVC, Diffusion of Neutral Molecules in Plasticized PVC, Bulk Properties of Membranes Used as Ion-Selective Electrodes, Partition of Salts and Ionophores between Membrane and Water; The Polymer/Water Interface: Response of the Water/Polymer Interface to Concentration Changes, the Relationship between Interfacial Rate Constants and Homogeneous Equilibrium Constants
    Sensing Effects Based on Optical Behaviour: Colourimetric Effects, Fluorescence and Luminescence Effects, Sensing Effects Based on Light Refraction
    Sensing Effects in Electroconducting Conjugated Polymers: Gas and Vapour Sensing, Membranes for the Separation of Gases, Electrochemical Memory Effect, Ion Detectors, Electrocontrolled Delivering of Biological Substances of Drugs and Ionic Compounds, Membranes with Electrocontrollable Permeability, Radiation Detectors, Electrochemical Biosensors: Glucose Sensors, Biosensors Based on Other Enzyme Systems, Bioelectrodes, The ECP/Biology Interface: Molecular Recognition
    References and Supplementary Reading

    Sensors Using Polymer Films (Construction, Technology, Materials and Performance)
    Temperature Sensors
    Mechanical Sensors: Membrane Touch Switches, Strain Gauges, Pressure Sensors, Tactile Sensors, Other Mechanical Sensors
    Acoustic Sensors: Condenser Microphones, Piezoelectric Transducers, Hydrophones, Fibre-Optic Microphones
    Infrared Radiation Sensors: Freely Suspended Pyrosensors, Pyroelectric Arrays
    Humidity Sensors: Capacitance-Type Humidity Sensors, Resistance-Type Humidity Sensors, Transistor-Type Humidity Sensors, Resonator-Type Humidity Sensors, Electrochemical Humidity Sensors, Fibre-Optic Humidity Sensors
    Gas Sensors: Classical Electrochemical Gas Sensors Using Permselective Polymer Membranes, Semiconductor Sensors Using Polymer Membranes, Solid Polymer Electrolyte-Based Electrochemical Microsensors, Impedance-type and Related Sensors, Mass-Sensitive Gas Sensors, Calorimetric Sensors, Fibre-Optic Gas Sensors, Other Gas-Sensing Principles Using Polymers
    Ion-Selective Sensors: Ion-Selective Electrodes, ISFETs, Multiple Ion Sensor Arrays, Conductimetric Ion Sensors, Fibre-Optic Ion Sensors
    Sensors in Medicine and Biology: Sensors for Inorganic Compounds, Sensors for Organic Biochemical Compounds
    Other Applications: Liquid Component Sensors, Special Purpose Sensors, Polymers in Actuators
    Reference and Supplementary Reading

    Summary (Table)
    Summary of Sensing Effects, Most Important Polymers, Additives and Sensors Types

    Selected Polymers 2. Gas Sensors Based on Heteropolysiloxane Films 3. Humidity Sensor Based on Polymer Film
    Glossary of Abbreviations

    More than 200 schematics

    The many diagrammatic presentations in this new volume illustrate a wide range of sensor designs and functions. Here is a small sampling (condensed captions) of this illustrative material. Schematic structure of a process-controlling unit using sensors and actuators Calibration curves for sensors indicating the most important properties Interaction flowchart of sensors applying sensing polymer films Cross section of a P-channel MOS (PMOS) transistor Processing of CMOS structures Schematic diagram of a vacuum evaporation unit Comparison between the patterning of (a) photosensitive and (b) nonphotosensitive polymer layers Schematic electropolymerization mechanisms for polypyrrole: synthesis and doping-dedoping Schematic illustration of the vacuum deposition process used for polymer films: vacuum pyrolysis; vacuum UV-poly- merization; electron beam polymerization; vacuum evaporation; RF sputtering; glow discharge (plasma) polymerization Interdigital structure used in both capacitator- and resistor-type sensors Typical sensitive FET structures using polymer films Structure and characteristics of amperometric sensors Interferometric sensors: transmission type; reflection type Conductivities of main ECPs compared with other classical conductors, semiconductors, and insulators Schematic representation of the stress-component-selective tactile sensor array


    Gabor Harsanyi

    "Engineers who want to be on top of one of the newest developments in sensor technology-polymer- based detectors-will find Polymer Films in Sensor Applications . . . a happy alternative to . . . a night chemistry class. The text . . . is practical rather than theoretical. . . . [It] provides an excellent comprehensive review of the basic theory and application of polymers for electronic sensors . . . . I highly recommend it for both the researcher and the sensor engineer."
    --Lewis F. Brown, Ph.D., in Sensors, The Journal of Applied Sensing Technology, October 1995