Polymer Films in Sensor Applications: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Polymer Films in Sensor Applications

1st Edition

By Gabor Harsanyi

CRC Press

464 pages

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Paperback: 9781566762014
pub: 1995-07-01
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Description

Polymer films now play an essential and growing role in sensors. Recent advances in polymer science and film preparation have made polymer films useful, practical and economical in a wide range of sensor designs and applications. Further, the continuing miniaturization of microelectronics favors the use of polymer thin films in sensors.

This new book is the first comprehensive presentation of this technology. It covers both scientific fundamentals and practical engineering aspects. Included is an extensive survey of all types of sensors and applications. The very detailed table of contents in the next pages provides full information on content. More than 200 schematics illustrate a wide variety of sensor structures and their function.

Reviews

"Engineers who want to be on top of one of the newest developments in sensor technology-polymer- based detectors-will find Polymer Films in Sensor Applications . . . a happy alternative to . . . a night chemistry class. The text . . . is practical rather than theoretical. . . . [It] provides an excellent comprehensive review of the basic theory and application of polymers for electronic sensors . . . . I highly recommend it for both the researcher and the sensor engineer."

--Lewis F. Brown, Ph.D., in Sensors, The Journal of Applied Sensing Technology, October 1995

Table of Contents

Foreword, Preface

Introduction

Sensors and Their Characteristics

Polymers and Their Properties

Sensor Technologies

Monolithic Semiconductor Processing: Silicon Single Crystal, Epitaxial Growth, Structuring Silicon, Lithography and Etching, Anisotropic Etching, Doping Techniques, Integrated Processing

Processing of Ceramics and Glasses: Microstructure of Ceramics, Manufacturing of Ceramics, Microstructure and Behaviour of Glasses, Manufacturing of Glasses

Thin- and Thick-Film Technologies: Thin-Film Processing, Thick-Film Processing, Polymer Thick-Film Technology

Processing of Microsensor Polymer Films: Processing of Photosensitive Polymers, Photolithography of Nonphotosensitive Polymers, Printing of Polymers, Electrochemical Polymerization, Vacuum-Deposited Polymer Films, Other Polymer Film Technologies

References and Supplementary Reading

Sensor Structures with Sensitive Polymers

Impedance-Type Sensors

Semiconductor-Based Sensors: Field Effect Principle, Other Semiconductor Sensors

Resonant Sensors: BAW Sensors, SAW Sensors, Other Resonator-Type Sensors

Electrochemical Cells: Potentiometric Sensors, Amperometric Sensors, Other Types of Electrochemical Measurements

Calorimetric Sensors

Fibre-Optic Sensors: Optrode-Style Sensors, Core-Based Sensors, Coating-Based Sensors, Interferometric Sensors, Other Fibre-Optic Sensor Types

References and Supplementary Reading

Sensing Effects and Sensitive Polymers

Sensing Effects Based on Dielectric Behaviour: Piezoelectric Effect and Piezoelectric Polymers, Polymer Electrets, Pyroelectricity in Polymers, Sensing Effects Based on Permittivity Changes

Sensing Effects in Conductive Polymer Composites: Theory of Conduction Mechanism, Pressure and Deformation Sensitivity, Temperature Dependence, Gas Sensitivity of Metal Polymer Composites, Humidity Sensitive Behaviour

Sensing Effects of Polymer Electrolytes: Model for Conduction and Sensing Mechanisms, Chemically Sensitive Polymer Electrolytes, Humidity-Sensitive Behaviour of Polymer Electrolytes

Sorbent Polymer Coatings for Chemical Sensors: Sensor Responses and the Partition Coefficient, Fundamental Interactions Contributing to Sorption, Linear Solvation Energy Relationships, Selected Polymer Examples, Polymer Design, Sensors and Sensor Arrays

Selective Chemical Sensing: Molecular Recognition with Polymeric Layers and Cage Compounds: Fundamentals of Molecular Recognition: Recognition Sites in Polymeric and Supramolecular Compounds, Bulk Absorption of Molecules in Polysiloxane Layers, Surface Adsorption and Bulk Absorption of Molecules in Calixarene Layers, Surface Adsorption of Organic Solvent Molecules in H"gbergarene Layers; Specific Sensor Responses of Polymer-Based Chemical Sensors: Survey of the Sensing Principles, Quartz Microbalance Transducers: Mass Changes as Sensor Responses, Calorimetric Transducers: Temperature Changes as Sensor Responses, Capacitance Transducers: Changes of Dielectric Properties and Thicknesses as Sensor Responses, Optical Transducers: Changes of Thicknesses as Sensor Responses

Polymeric Separation Membranes: Permeability and Permselectivity, Separation Process, Behaviour of Polymers

Polymers in Ion Sensitive Membranes: Background: Behaviour Required of Membrane for Nernst Response, Behaviour Required for Rapid Response, Behavior Required for Low Impedance System, Behaviour Required for Long-Term Stability; Bulk Properties of Membranes: Dielectric Constant of Plasticized PVC, Ionic Conductivity of Plasticized PVC, Diffusion of Neutral Molecules in Plasticized PVC, Bulk Properties of Membranes Used as Ion-Selective Electrodes, Partition of Salts and Ionophores between Membrane and Water; The Polymer/Water Interface: Response of the Water/Polymer Interface to Concentration Changes, the Relationship between Interfacial Rate Constants and Homogeneous Equilibrium Constants

Sensing Effects Based on Optical Behaviour: Colourimetric Effects, Fluorescence and Luminescence Effects, Sensing Effects Based on Light Refraction

Sensing Effects in Electroconducting Conjugated Polymers: Gas and Vapour Sensing, Membranes for the Separation of Gases, Electrochemical Memory Effect, Ion Detectors, Electrocontrolled Delivering of Biological Substances of Drugs and Ionic Compounds, Membranes with Electrocontrollable Permeability, Radiation Detectors, Electrochemical Biosensors: Glucose Sensors, Biosensors Based on Other Enzyme Systems, Bioelectrodes, The ECP/Biology Interface: Molecular Recognition

References and Supplementary Reading

Sensors Using Polymer Films (Construction, Technology, Materials and Performance)

Temperature Sensors

Mechanical Sensors: Membrane Touch Switches, Strain Gauges, Pressure Sensors, Tactile Sensors, Other Mechanical Sensors

Acoustic Sensors: Condenser Microphones, Piezoelectric Transducers, Hydrophones, Fibre-Optic Microphones

Infrared Radiation Sensors: Freely Suspended Pyrosensors, Pyroelectric Arrays

Humidity Sensors: Capacitance-Type Humidity Sensors, Resistance-Type Humidity Sensors, Transistor-Type Humidity Sensors, Resonator-Type Humidity Sensors, Electrochemical Humidity Sensors, Fibre-Optic Humidity Sensors

Gas Sensors: Classical Electrochemical Gas Sensors Using Permselective Polymer Membranes, Semiconductor Sensors Using Polymer Membranes, Solid Polymer Electrolyte-Based Electrochemical Microsensors, Impedance-type and Related Sensors, Mass-Sensitive Gas Sensors, Calorimetric Sensors, Fibre-Optic Gas Sensors, Other Gas-Sensing Principles Using Polymers

Ion-Selective Sensors: Ion-Selective Electrodes, ISFETs, Multiple Ion Sensor Arrays, Conductimetric Ion Sensors, Fibre-Optic Ion Sensors

Sensors in Medicine and Biology: Sensors for Inorganic Compounds, Sensors for Organic Biochemical Compounds

Other Applications: Liquid Component Sensors, Special Purpose Sensors, Polymers in Actuators

Reference and Supplementary Reading

Summary (Table)

Summary of Sensing Effects, Most Important Polymers, Additives and Sensors Types

Appendices

Selected Polymers 2. Gas Sensors Based on Heteropolysiloxane Films 3. Humidity Sensor Based on Polymer Film

Glossary of Abbreviations

More than 200 schematics

The many diagrammatic presentations in this new volume illustrate a wide range of sensor designs and functions. Here is a small sampling (condensed captions) of this illustrative material. Schematic structure of a process-controlling unit using sensors and actuators Calibration curves for sensors indicating the most important properties Interaction flowchart of sensors applying sensing polymer films Cross section of a P-channel MOS (PMOS) transistor Processing of CMOS structures Schematic diagram of a vacuum evaporation unit Comparison between the patterning of (a) photosensitive and (b) nonphotosensitive polymer layers Schematic electropolymerization mechanisms for polypyrrole: synthesis and doping-dedoping Schematic illustration of the vacuum deposition process used for polymer films: vacuum pyrolysis; vacuum UV-poly- merization; electron beam polymerization; vacuum evaporation; RF sputtering; glow discharge (plasma) polymerization Interdigital structure used in both capacitator- and resistor-type sensors Typical sensitive FET structures using polymer films Structure and characteristics of amperometric sensors Interferometric sensors: transmission type; reflection type Conductivities of main ECPs compared with other classical conductors, semiconductors, and insulators Schematic representation of the stress-component-selective tactile sensor array

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science