Polymers and Polymeric Materials for Fiber and Gradient Optics
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This book considers general aspects of the theory of polymers applied in optics. The main factors affecting the light loss in polymeric wave beam guides (PG) are discussed, and the mechanism of light loss in PG is analysed. Polymers applied in fiber optics are classified with reference to methods of fabrication and purification of the materials. Technological aspects of material fabrication are considered together with kinetic aspects of polymerisation. Updated information on polymerisation kinetics of MMA and styrene, and copolymerisation of these monomers with each other is reported. Other topics discussed in the book are heterogeneity of optic copolymers, association between structure and reactivity of monomers, other properties of optic copolymers, and areas of their commercial application. This volume will be of value and interest to anyone working in the field of optic polymers, both in academia and industry.
Table of Contents
Preface Introduction Optical properties of polymers and materials based on them. General problems Refractive index. Dispersion of refractive index Optical anisotropy. Birefringence Optical inhomogeneity Numerical aperture Reasons and mechanisms for light losses: Reflection; Scattering; Absorption The lowest (theoretical) limit of losses in PG Light losses in polymeric media modified by substitution of hydrogen atoms by atoms of various elements Polymers for fiber optics. General demands Polymers for core of optical fibers: Polymerizational polymers and copolymers. General problems of their production; Poly(methyl methacrylate) and other polymers of methacrylic acid ethers â€“ the main materials for PG core; Modified poly(methyl methacrylate) as the material for PG core; Polystyrene and styrene copolymers with methyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylates; Polymers from deuterated monomers Polycondensational polymers; other types of polymers for PG core Nontraditional polymerization polymers for fiber optics Polymers for covers of optical fibers Fluorine-containing polyalkyl(meth)acrylates and ?-fluoro-acrylates Estimation of relative radical-forming ability of monomers of the fluorine methacrylate sequence in radical homopolymerization and copolymerization (in mass) with vinyl monomers and structure of macromolecular chain of copolymers obtained: Kinetics of radical polymerization of fluorine (meth)acrylates in mass; Kinetics of radical copolymerization of fluorine-containing methacrylates with vinyl monomers; relative activity of comonomers, structure of the macrochain and compositional inhomogeneity of copolymers obtained; Determination of absolute rate constants of chain propagation during polymerization of fluorine-containing monomers Study of polymerization of fluorine-containing methacrylates in the presence of some stable radicals Properties of PGs as information transmission channels Transmission bandwidth PG and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) Polymeric media with refractive index gradient Classification of the refractive index gradient Measurements of the main parameters of selfocs (metrology of selfocs). Measurements of distribution of the refractive index profile and the absolute value of the refractive index by selfoc radius