Polyurethanes in Biomedical Applications: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Polyurethanes in Biomedical Applications

1st Edition

By Nina M.K. Lamba, Kimberly A. Woodhouse, Stuart L. Cooper

CRC Press

288 pages

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Hardback: 9780849345173
pub: 1997-11-25
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Description

Polyurethanes in Biomedical Applications studies the use of polyurethanes in implanted medical devices. This analysis describes the concepts of polymer science, the manufacture of polyurethanes, and the biological responses to implant polyurethanes, reflecting the developments in biomaterials science and the interdisciplinary nature of bioengineering.

Reviews

"…an impressive updata of CRC's 1986 book entitled Polyurethanes in Medicine…the book serves as a valuable summary and is recommended for the practitioner using, or considering, polyurethanes."

-David Hunkeler in Polymer News

"This is an exceptionally well written book that is expected to become the standard reference…Written in a very clear scientific way, this book provides a balance between chemistry and biology, covering not only chemical synthesis and methods of preparation but also material characterization, host response, degradation phenomena and application. Highly recommended.

-Nicholas A. Peppas, Purdue University

Table of Contents

Introduction

Biomaterials

Biocompatibility

Biomedical Polymers

Organization

References

The Chemistry of Polyurethane Copolymers

Introduction

History of Polyurethane Copolymers

Polyurethane Copolymers

Synthesis of Polyurethanes

Isocyanate Chemistry

Allophanate Reaction

Biuret Formation

Acylurea

Isocyanurate Formation

Uretidione Formation

Carbodiimide Formation

Catalysts

Synthesis Media

Raw Materials in Polyurethane Copolymer Synthesis

Isocyanates

Polyols

Chain Extenders

Linear Polyurethane Elastomer Synthesis

Cross-Linked Polyurethane Copolymers

Polyurethane Modification

Bulk Modification of Polyurethanes

Surface Modification of Polyurethanes

Summary

References

Polyurethane Processing and Survey of Biomedical Polyurethanes

Introduction

Processing of Polyurethanes

One-Dimensional Processes

Two-Dimensional Processes

Three-Dimensional Processes

Sterilization

Steam Sterilization

Ethylene Oxide Sterilization

Radiation

Commercial and Experimental Polyurethanes

References

Bulk Characterization and Structure-Property Relationships of Polyurethanes

Introduction

States of Order and Thermal Transitions of Polymers

Intermolecular Bonding in Polymers

Mechanical Behavior

Molecular Weight

Structure of Polyurethanes

Microphase Separation

Morphological Models of Block Copolymers

Molecular Orientation in Polyurethanes

Hydrogen Bonding

Cross-Linking

The Effect of Polyurethane Chemistry on Physical Properties

Characterization of Polyurethanes

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Infrared Spectroscopy

Differential Scanning Calorimetry

Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis

Electron Microscopy

Stress-Strain Properties and Ultimate Tensile Strength

Solubility Tests

Permeability and Extractability

Electrical Properties

Summary

References

Surface Characterization of Polyurethanes

Introduction

Surface Energy and Surface Tension

Contact Angles

Contact Angle Measurement

Contact Angle Hysteresis

Attenuated Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)

ATR-FTIR Analysis of Polyurethanes

Surface Spectroscopic Techniques

X-Ray Photo-Electron Spectroscopy (XPS)

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)

Surface Spectroscopic Studies of Polyurethanes

Surface Morphology

Surface Electrical Properties

Summary

References

Introduction to Host Responses

Introduction

Protein Adsorption

The First Event

Coagulation System

Fibrinolytic System

Cells, Extracellular Matrix, and Cellular Interactions

Platelets

Erythrocytes

Leukocytes

The Extracellular Matrix

Cell Receptors and Mediators

Hemostasis and Thrombosis

The Inflammatory Response

Foreign Body Response

Wound Healing

Immune Response

Innate Immunity

Complement System

Adaptive Immunity

Summary

References

Host Responses to Polyurethanes

Introduction

Assessment of Host Biomaterial Interactions

In Vitro Testing

Ex Vivo Testing

In Vivo Testing

Clinical Testing

Guidelines for Biological Testing of Materials

Protein Adsorption onto Polyurethanes

Albumin

Fibrinogen

Fibronectin

Vitronectin

Lipoproteins

Coagulation System

Fibrinolytic System

Complement System

The Vroman Effect

Cellular Responses to Polyurethanes

Platelets

Leukocytes

Thrombus Formation

Soft Tissue Interactions

Neointima Formation on Polyurethanes

Immunological Response to Biomaterials

Infection

Summary

References

Degradation of Polyurethanes

Introduction

Mechanisms of Biodegradation

Hydrolysis

Oxidation

Chemical Degradation

Sterilization

Biological Catalysis of Degradation

Environmental Stress Cracking

Impact of Polyurethane Structure on Biodegradation

Other Mechanisms of Degradation

Implant Location

Toxicity and Carcinogenicity

Calcification of Polyurethanes

Biodegradable Polyurethanes

Summary

References

Polyurethanes in Biomedical Applications

Introduction

Cardiovascular Applications

Catheters

Pacemaker Lead Insulation

Vascular Prostheses

Heart Valves

Cardiac Assist Devices

Artificial Organs

Artificial Heart

Hemodialysis

Artificial Lung/Blood Oxygenation

Hemoperfusion

Artificial Pancreas

Blood Tubing

Blood Filters

Tissue Replacement and Augmentation

Breast Implants

Wound Dressings

Facial Reconstruction

Adhesives

Other Applications

Artificial Ducts

Contraceptives

Controlled Drug Delivery

Penile Prostheses

Miscellaneous

References

Summary and Future Directions

List of Abbreviations

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED009000
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science
TEC055000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Textiles & Polymers