Polyurethanes in Biomedical Applications  book cover
1st Edition

Polyurethanes in Biomedical Applications




ISBN 9780849345173
Published November 25, 1997 by CRC Press
288 Pages

USD $315.00

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Book Description

Polyurethanes in Biomedical Applications studies the use of polyurethanes in implanted medical devices. This analysis describes the concepts of polymer science, the manufacture of polyurethanes, and the biological responses to implant polyurethanes, reflecting the developments in biomaterials science and the interdisciplinary nature of bioengineering.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Biomaterials
Biocompatibility
Biomedical Polymers
Organization
References
The Chemistry of Polyurethane Copolymers
Introduction
History of Polyurethane Copolymers
Polyurethane Copolymers
Synthesis of Polyurethanes
Isocyanate Chemistry
Allophanate Reaction
Biuret Formation
Acylurea
Isocyanurate Formation
Uretidione Formation
Carbodiimide Formation
Catalysts
Synthesis Media
Raw Materials in Polyurethane Copolymer Synthesis
Isocyanates
Polyols
Chain Extenders
Linear Polyurethane Elastomer Synthesis
Cross-Linked Polyurethane Copolymers
Polyurethane Modification
Bulk Modification of Polyurethanes
Surface Modification of Polyurethanes
Summary
References
Polyurethane Processing and Survey of Biomedical Polyurethanes
Introduction
Processing of Polyurethanes
One-Dimensional Processes
Two-Dimensional Processes
Three-Dimensional Processes
Sterilization
Steam Sterilization
Ethylene Oxide Sterilization
Radiation
Commercial and Experimental Polyurethanes
References
Bulk Characterization and Structure-Property Relationships of Polyurethanes
Introduction
States of Order and Thermal Transitions of Polymers
Intermolecular Bonding in Polymers
Mechanical Behavior
Molecular Weight
Structure of Polyurethanes
Microphase Separation
Morphological Models of Block Copolymers
Molecular Orientation in Polyurethanes
Hydrogen Bonding
Cross-Linking
The Effect of Polyurethane Chemistry on Physical Properties
Characterization of Polyurethanes
Gel Permeation Chromatography
Infrared Spectroscopy
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis
Electron Microscopy
Stress-Strain Properties and Ultimate Tensile Strength
Solubility Tests
Permeability and Extractability
Electrical Properties
Summary
References
Surface Characterization of Polyurethanes
Introduction
Surface Energy and Surface Tension
Contact Angles
Contact Angle Measurement
Contact Angle Hysteresis
Attenuated Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)
ATR-FTIR Analysis of Polyurethanes
Surface Spectroscopic Techniques
X-Ray Photo-Electron Spectroscopy (XPS)
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
Surface Spectroscopic Studies of Polyurethanes
Surface Morphology
Surface Electrical Properties
Summary
References
Introduction to Host Responses
Introduction
Protein Adsorption
The First Event
Coagulation System
Fibrinolytic System
Cells, Extracellular Matrix, and Cellular Interactions
Platelets
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
The Extracellular Matrix
Cell Receptors and Mediators
Hemostasis and Thrombosis
The Inflammatory Response
Foreign Body Response
Wound Healing
Immune Response
Innate Immunity
Complement System
Adaptive Immunity
Summary
References
Host Responses to Polyurethanes
Introduction
Assessment of Host Biomaterial Interactions
In Vitro Testing
Ex Vivo Testing
In Vivo Testing
Clinical Testing
Guidelines for Biological Testing of Materials
Protein Adsorption onto Polyurethanes
Albumin
Fibrinogen
Fibronectin
Vitronectin
Lipoproteins
Coagulation System
Fibrinolytic System
Complement System
The Vroman Effect
Cellular Responses to Polyurethanes
Platelets
Leukocytes
Thrombus Formation
Soft Tissue Interactions
Neointima Formation on Polyurethanes
Immunological Response to Biomaterials
Infection
Summary
References
Degradation of Polyurethanes
Introduction
Mechanisms of Biodegradation
Hydrolysis
Oxidation
Chemical Degradation
Sterilization
Biological Catalysis of Degradation
Environmental Stress Cracking
Impact of Polyurethane Structure on Biodegradation
Other Mechanisms of Degradation
Implant Location
Toxicity and Carcinogenicity
Calcification of Polyurethanes
Biodegradable Polyurethanes
Summary
References
Polyurethanes in Biomedical Applications
Introduction
Cardiovascular Applications
Catheters
Pacemaker Lead Insulation
Vascular Prostheses
Heart Valves
Cardiac Assist Devices
Artificial Organs
Artificial Heart
Hemodialysis
Artificial Lung/Blood Oxygenation
Hemoperfusion
Artificial Pancreas
Blood Tubing
Blood Filters
Tissue Replacement and Augmentation
Breast Implants
Wound Dressings
Facial Reconstruction
Adhesives
Other Applications
Artificial Ducts
Contraceptives
Controlled Drug Delivery
Penile Prostheses
Miscellaneous
References
Summary and Future Directions
List of Abbreviations
Index

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Reviews

"…an impressive updata of CRC's 1986 book entitled Polyurethanes in Medicine…the book serves as a valuable summary and is recommended for the practitioner using, or considering, polyurethanes."
-David Hunkeler in Polymer News
"This is an exceptionally well written book that is expected to become the standard reference...Written in a very clear scientific way, this book provides a balance between chemistry and biology, covering not only chemical synthesis and methods of preparation but also material characterization, host response, degradation phenomena and application. Highly recommended.
-Nicholas A. Peppas, Purdue University