The demographic history of twentieth-century Russia has been marked by a series of tragedies. Calamitous wars, revolutions, civil strife, and political murders have resulted in unparalleled mortality rates, depressed fertility rates, and sadly unprecedented demographic patterns of all types. This volume explores the most recent problems afflicting the Russian population in the post?Cold War era.The demise of the Soviet Union has brought new hardships?the collapse of the health-care system, internal strife, and economic disruptions?to the people and has deeply affected demographic processes throughout Russia. The contributors explore key trends, from increasing mortality rates and decreasing birth rates to refugee flows into Russia and the ?brain drain? out of Russia. Problems of aging, increased infant mortality, and urban and rural population change are discussed in detail for each major region.Rarely has there been a better opportunity to examine the spatial, economic, psychological, and political factors contributing to demographic stress in a current setting. These demographic processes are not only unique as a domestic social phenomenon but are also immensely significant in their global impact, influencing international migration and foreign aid.