Today, there is no comparable threat to Western democracies as the rise of right-wing populism. While it has played an increasing role at least since the 1990s, only the social consequences of the global financial crises in 2008 have given its break that led to UK’s ‘Brexit’ and the election of Donald Trump as US President in 2016 but also promoted what has been called left populism in countries that were hit the hardest from both the banking crisis and consequential neo-liberal austerity politics in the EU like Greece and Portugal.
In 2017, the French Front National (FN) attracted many voters in the French Presidential elections; we have seen the radicalization of the Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) in Germany and the formation of centre-right government in Austria. Further, we have witnessed the consolidation of autocratic regimes as in the EU member states Poland and Greece. All these manifestations of right-wing populism share a common feature: they attack or even compromise the core elements of democratic societies such as the separation of powers, protection of minorities, or the rule of law.
Despite a broad debate on the re-emergence of ‘populism’ in the transition from the twentieth to the twenty-first century that has brought forth many interesting findings, a lack of sociological reasoning cannot be denied as sociology itself withdrew from theorising populism decades ago and left the field to mainly political sciences and history. In a sense, Populism and the Crisis of Democracy considers itself as a contribution to start with filling this lacuna. Written in a direct and clear style, this set of volumes will be an invaluable reference for students and scholars in the field of political theory, political sociology and European Studies.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Is There Such a Thing as Populism?, Jürgen Mackert
Part I: Conceptual Debate
1. Populism as a Conceptual Problem, Cathérine Colliot-Thélène
2. Why Populism?, Rogers Brubaker
3. Populism: An Ideal-Typical Assessment, Gregor Fitzi
4. How to Define Populism? Reflections on A Contested Concept and Its (Mis)Use in the Social Sciences, Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser
5. Populism and ‘Unpolitics’, Paul Taggart
Part II: Theoretical Approaches
6. ‘We the People’: Liberal and Organic Populism, and the Politics of Social Closure, Jürgen Mackert
7. Past Is Prologue: Electoral Events of Spring 2012 and the Old ‘New’ Nationalism in Post-Security Europe, Mabel Berezin
8. The Coterminous Rise of Right-Wing Populism and Superfluous Populations, David A. Snow and Colin Bernatzky
9. Toward A Strategy for Integrating the Study of Social Movement and Populist Party Mobilisation, John D. McCarthy
Introduction: Political Populism as A Symptom of the Great Transformation of Democracy, Gregor Fitzi
Part I: Language, Media and the Law
1. The Micro-Politics of Right-Wing Populism, Ruth Wodak
2. Populism 2.0, Social Media and the False Allure of ‘Unmediated’ Representation, Benjamin Moffitt
3. From Protecting Individual Rights to Protecting the Public: The Changing Parameters of Populist-Driven Criminal Law and Penal Policy, John Pratt and Michelle Miao
Part II: Dimensions of Right-Wing Populism
4. Right-Wing Populism in Context: A Historical and Systematic Perspective, Dieter Rucht
5. Populism and the Radical Right in Europe: The Paradigmatic Case of the French Front National, Dietmar Loch
6. Ambivalences of Cosmopolitanisms, Elites and Far-Right Populisms in Twenty-First Century Europe, Ulrike M. Vieten
Part III: Regimes, Party Systems, and Political Subjects
7. The Role of Populist Parties and Movements in Transitions to Hybrid Regimes in Europe, Klaus Bachmann
8. Populism as a Challenge for Party Systems: A Comparison Between Italy and Spain, Roberto Biorcio
9. ‘Citizens’ or ‘People’? Competing Meanings of the Political Subject in Latin America, Jenny Pearce
Introduction: Demography, Democracy and Right-Wing Populism, Bryan S. Turner
Part I: Populism and Migration
1. Populist’s Representation of The People in The Italian Ius Soli Political Debate: The Lega Nord and the Movimento Cinque Stelle, Giorgia Bulli
2. The Migration Crisis Between Populism and Post-Democracy, Giovanna Campani
3. Immigration and Populist Political Strategies: The Swiss Case in European Perspective, Gianni D’Amato and Didier Ruedin
Part II: Populism and Gender
4. Autochthonic Populism, Everyday Bordering and the Construction of ‘The Migrant’, Nira Yuval-Davis
5. Right-Wing Western and Islamic Populism: Reconsidering Justice, Democracy, and Equity, Haideh Moghissi
6. ʻGender(Ed) Nationalismʼ of the Populist Radical Right – An Extreme Typicality, Leila Hadj-Abdou
7. Non-Western New Populism: Religion, Masculinity and Violence in the East, Joshua M. Roose
Part III: Populism and Religion
8. ‘Abendland in Christian Hands’: Religion and Populism in Contemporary European Politics, Rosario Forlenza
9. The AKP and the New Politics of the Social: Fragile Citizenship, Authoritarian Populism and Paternalist Family Policies, Zafer Yilmaz
10. Trump, Religion and Populism, Bryan S. Turner
Gregor Fitzi is co-director of the Centre for Citizenship, Social Pluralism and Religious Diversity at University of Potsdam, Germany. After his PhD in Sociology at the University of Bielefeld, he was assistant professor at the Institute of Sociology, University of Heidelberg, Germany and held a temporary position as full professor at the University of Bielefeld. His most recent publication is The Challenge of Modernity: Georg Simmel’s Sociological Theory (Routledge, 2018).
Jürgen Mackert is Professor of Sociology and co-director of the ‘Centre for Citizenship, Social Pluralism and Religious Pluralism’ at Potsdam University, Germany. His research interests are in sociology of citizenship, political economy, closure theory, collective violence. His most recent publication is The Transformation of Citizenship (Routledge, 2017), in 3 volumes, co-edited with Bryan S. Turner.
Bryan S. Turner is Professor of the Sociology of Religion at the Australian Catholic University, Honorary Professor at Potsdam University and Honorary Fellow in The Edward Cadbury Centre, Birmingham University. In 2015 he received the Max Planck Award from the Max-Planck Society and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany. He is editor of Citizenship Studies, the Journal of Classical Sociology, and the Journal of Religious and Political Practice. He is also Chief Editor of the Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory (2017).