Powder Metallurgy : Science, Technology, and Materials book cover
1st Edition

Powder Metallurgy
Science, Technology, and Materials

ISBN 9781138075016
Published August 16, 2018 by Universities Press
536 Pages

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Book Description

Since the 1920s, modern powder metallurgy has been used to produce a wide range of structural powder metallurgy components, self-lubricating bearings, and cutting tools. The conventional method involves the production of metal powders and the manufacture of useful objects from such powders by die compaction and sintering. Powder injection molding permits the production of stronger, more uniform, and more complex powder metallurgy parts. A detailed discussion of powder metallurgy materials and products is given in this book. Worked examples, exercises, questions, and problems are included in each chapter.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Powder Production and Characterisation
1.2 Powder Treatment
1.3 Powder Compaction
1.4 Sintering
1.5 Full Density Processing
1.6 Secondary Treatments of P/M parts
1.7 Applications
1.8 Holistic View of P/M Science and Technology
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 2. Powder Production
2.1 Chemical Methods
2.2 Electrolytic Method
2.4 Evaporation Method
2.5 Mechanical Method
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 3. Powder Characterisation
3.1 Chemical Composition and Structure
3.2 Particle Size and Shape
3.3 Particle Surface Topography
3.4 Surface Area
3.5 Apparent and Tap Densities
3.6 Flow Rate
3.7 Compressibility
3.8 Green Strength
3.9 Pyrophorocity and Toxicity
3.10 Powder Production Methods and Characteristics Relations
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 4. Powder Treatment
4.1 Annealing and Diffusion Alloying
4.2 Powder Mixing / Milling
4.3 Granulation
4.4 Coating on Metal Powders
4.5 Powder Degassing
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 5. Powder Compaction
5.1 Basic Aspects
5.2 Die Compaction
5.3 Warm Compaction
5.4 Wet Compaction
5.5.Cold Isostatic Compaction
5.6 Powder Roll Compaction
5.7 Powder Extrusion
5.8 Injection Moulding
5.9 Green Part Materials Handling
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 6. Pressureless Powder Shaping
6.1 Slip Casting / Slurry Moulding
6.2 Tape Casting
6.3 Electrophoretic Deposition
6.4 Spray Deposition / Forming
6.5 Solid Preform Fabrication
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 7. Sintering Theory
7.1 Solid State Sintering
7.2 Activated Solid State Sintering
7.3 Liquid Phase Sintering
7.4 Activated Liquid Phase Sintering
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 8. Sintering Technology
8.1 Debinding of Powder Compacts
8.2 Loose Sintering
8.3 Sintering Furnaces
8.4 Sintering Zones
8.5 Rapid Sintering Processes
8.6 Sintering Atmosphere
8.7 Sintering Atmosphere Analysis and Control
8.8 Process Variables
8.9 Materials Variables
8.10 Dimensional Changes
8.11 Microstructural Changes
8.12 Infiltration
8.13 Sintered Parts Materials Handling
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 9. Full Density Consolidation
9.1 Dynamic Powder Compaction
9.2 Hot Pressing
9.3 Hot Isostatic Pressing
9.4 Powder Hot Extrusion
9.5 Powder Hot Forging
9.6 Powder Preform Rolling
9.7 Spark Sintering
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 10. Secondary Treatments
10.1 Sizing
10.2 Machining
10.3 Impregnation
10.4 Surface Engineering
10.5 Heat Treatment
10.6 Joining
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 11. Testing and Quality Control of P/M Materials and Products
11.1 Sampling
11.2 Density
11.3 Sintered Porosity and Pore Distribution
11.4 Structure of Sintered Materials
11.5 Differential Thermal Analysis
11.6 Thermal Expansion
11.7 Thermal Shock Resistance
11.8 Thermal Conductivity
11.9 Optical Properties
11.10 Hardness
11.11 Strength
11.12 Impact Test
11.13 Fracture Toughness
11.14 Fatigue Behaviour
11.15 Creep Behaviour
11.16 Fracture Behaviour
11.17 Wear Resistance
11.18 Electrical Resistivity
11.19 Magnetic Properties
11.20 Corrosion Resistance
11.21 Quality Control Aspects of P/M Parts
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 12. Metallic and Ceramic P/M Materials
12.1 Low Alloy Steels
12.2 High Alloy Steels
12.3 Copper Alloys
12.4 Aluminium Alloys
12.5 Silver Alloys
12.6 Nickel Alloys
12.7 Titanium Alloys
12.8 Refractory Metals and Alloys
12.9 Intermetallics
12.10 Ceramic Systems
12.11 Cermets
12.12 Ceramic –Ceramic Composites
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 13. P/M Applications
13.1 Structural Applications
13.2 Machine Tool Applications
13.3 Power Generation Applications
13.4 Filter Applications
13.5 Friction Applications
13.6 Electrical Applications
13.7 Magnetic Applications
13.8 Oxygen Sensor Applications
13.9 Thermal Management Applications
13.10 Bio-Implant Applications
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

Chapter 14. Techno-economics of P/M Processing
14.1 Costs of Metal and Ceramic Powders
14.2 Economics of Metal Powder Production Methods
14.3 Economic Aspects of Sintered Parts
14.4 Energy Aspects of Sintering Process
14.5 Economic Aspects of Full Density Consolidation
14.6 Economic Aspects of Powder Injection Moulding
14.7 Economic Aspects of Secondary Treatments
14.8 Economic Aspects of Outsourcing
Questions and Problems
Further Readings

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Dr Anish Upadhyaya, Associate Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, has been an advocate of powder metallurgical processing due to its high materials utilisation, near net-shaping and energy efficiency. He has done pioneering work in the area of microwave sintering of metallic systems and has been conferred several awards, including Metallurgist of the Year (2009) from Ministry of Steel, Government of India, and has has co-authored a book, Materials Science and Engineering.

Dr GS Upadhyaya, Retired Professor, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, has made significant contributions to sintering science and technology through his research. He has published more than 300 original papers and authored/edited 14 books on sintered materials. He has trained a large number of students in powder metallurgy, who are now working in academia, research and industry.
He is a materials consultant based in Varanasi, India.


"... clearly and precisely written ... very welcome and useful addition to the library of any institute or company working in powder metallurgy."
— Herbert Danninger, TU Vienna

"… a ‘must’ read for students, researchers, engineers, and manufacturers involved in the processing of particulate materials. … there is the need for someone to take on the responsibility of providing an up-to-date textbook that covers both the science and technology of, in this case, PM. This book does a compelling job in addressing this need."
Animesh Bose, FAPMI, President, Materials Processing, Inc., in International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, Volume 47, Issue 3, 2011