1st Edition

Powder Metallurgy Science, Technology, and Materials

    536 Pages
    by Universities Press

    536 Pages
    by Universities Press

    Since the 1920s, modern powder metallurgy has been used to produce a wide range of structural powder metallurgy components, self-lubricating bearings, and cutting tools. The conventional method involves the production of metal powders and the manufacture of useful objects from such powders by die compaction and sintering. Powder injection molding permits the production of stronger, more uniform, and more complex powder metallurgy parts. A detailed discussion of powder metallurgy materials and products is given in this book. Worked examples, exercises, questions, and problems are included in each chapter.

    Chapter 1. Introduction
    1.1 Powder Production and Characterisation
    1.2 Powder Treatment
    1.3 Powder Compaction
    1.4 Sintering
    1.5 Full Density Processing
    1.6 Secondary Treatments of P/M parts
    1.7 Applications
    1.8 Holistic View of P/M Science and Technology
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 2. Powder Production
    2.1 Chemical Methods
    2.2 Electrolytic Method
    2.4 Evaporation Method
    2.5 Mechanical Method
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 3. Powder Characterisation
    3.1 Chemical Composition and Structure
    3.2 Particle Size and Shape
    3.3 Particle Surface Topography
    3.4 Surface Area
    3.5 Apparent and Tap Densities
    3.6 Flow Rate
    3.7 Compressibility
    3.8 Green Strength
    3.9 Pyrophorocity and Toxicity
    3.10 Powder Production Methods and Characteristics Relations
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 4. Powder Treatment
    4.1 Annealing and Diffusion Alloying
    4.2 Powder Mixing / Milling
    4.3 Granulation
    4.4 Coating on Metal Powders
    4.5 Powder Degassing
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 5. Powder Compaction
    5.1 Basic Aspects
    5.2 Die Compaction
    5.3 Warm Compaction
    5.4 Wet Compaction
    5.5.Cold Isostatic Compaction
    5.6 Powder Roll Compaction
    5.7 Powder Extrusion
    5.8 Injection Moulding
    5.9 Green Part Materials Handling
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 6. Pressureless Powder Shaping
    6.1 Slip Casting / Slurry Moulding
    6.2 Tape Casting
    6.3 Electrophoretic Deposition
    6.4 Spray Deposition / Forming
    6.5 Solid Preform Fabrication
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 7. Sintering Theory
    7.1 Solid State Sintering
    7.2 Activated Solid State Sintering
    7.3 Liquid Phase Sintering
    7.4 Activated Liquid Phase Sintering
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 8. Sintering Technology
    8.1 Debinding of Powder Compacts
    8.2 Loose Sintering
    8.3 Sintering Furnaces
    8.4 Sintering Zones
    8.5 Rapid Sintering Processes
    8.6 Sintering Atmosphere
    8.7 Sintering Atmosphere Analysis and Control
    8.8 Process Variables
    8.9 Materials Variables
    8.10 Dimensional Changes
    8.11 Microstructural Changes
    8.12 Infiltration
    8.13 Sintered Parts Materials Handling
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 9. Full Density Consolidation
    9.1 Dynamic Powder Compaction
    9.2 Hot Pressing
    9.3 Hot Isostatic Pressing
    9.4 Powder Hot Extrusion
    9.5 Powder Hot Forging
    9.6 Powder Preform Rolling
    9.7 Spark Sintering
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 10. Secondary Treatments
    10.1 Sizing
    10.2 Machining
    10.3 Impregnation
    10.4 Surface Engineering
    10.5 Heat Treatment
    10.6 Joining
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 11. Testing and Quality Control of P/M Materials and Products
    11.1 Sampling
    11.2 Density
    11.3 Sintered Porosity and Pore Distribution
    11.4 Structure of Sintered Materials
    11.5 Differential Thermal Analysis
    11.6 Thermal Expansion
    11.7 Thermal Shock Resistance
    11.8 Thermal Conductivity
    11.9 Optical Properties
    11.10 Hardness
    11.11 Strength
    11.12 Impact Test
    11.13 Fracture Toughness
    11.14 Fatigue Behaviour
    11.15 Creep Behaviour
    11.16 Fracture Behaviour
    11.17 Wear Resistance
    11.18 Electrical Resistivity
    11.19 Magnetic Properties
    11.20 Corrosion Resistance
    11.21 Quality Control Aspects of P/M Parts
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 12. Metallic and Ceramic P/M Materials
    12.1 Low Alloy Steels
    12.2 High Alloy Steels
    12.3 Copper Alloys
    12.4 Aluminium Alloys
    12.5 Silver Alloys
    12.6 Nickel Alloys
    12.7 Titanium Alloys
    12.8 Refractory Metals and Alloys
    12.9 Intermetallics
    12.10 Ceramic Systems
    12.11 Cermets
    12.12 Ceramic –Ceramic Composites
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 13. P/M Applications
    13.1 Structural Applications
    13.2 Machine Tool Applications
    13.3 Power Generation Applications
    13.4 Filter Applications
    13.5 Friction Applications
    13.6 Electrical Applications
    13.7 Magnetic Applications
    13.8 Oxygen Sensor Applications
    13.9 Thermal Management Applications
    13.10 Bio-Implant Applications
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings

    Chapter 14. Techno-economics of P/M Processing
    14.1 Costs of Metal and Ceramic Powders
    14.2 Economics of Metal Powder Production Methods
    14.3 Economic Aspects of Sintered Parts
    14.4 Energy Aspects of Sintering Process
    14.5 Economic Aspects of Full Density Consolidation
    14.6 Economic Aspects of Powder Injection Moulding
    14.7 Economic Aspects of Secondary Treatments
    14.8 Economic Aspects of Outsourcing
    Questions and Problems
    Further Readings


    Dr Anish Upadhyaya, Associate Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, has been an advocate of powder metallurgical processing due to its high materials utilisation, near net-shaping and energy efficiency. He has done pioneering work in the area of microwave sintering of metallic systems and has been conferred several awards, including Metallurgist of the Year (2009) from Ministry of Steel, Government of India, and has has co-authored a book, Materials Science and Engineering.

    Dr GS Upadhyaya, Retired Professor, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, has made significant contributions to sintering science and technology through his research. He has published more than 300 original papers and authored/edited 14 books on sintered materials. He has trained a large number of students in powder metallurgy, who are now working in academia, research and industry.
    He is a materials consultant based in Varanasi, India.

    "... clearly and precisely written ... very welcome and useful addition to the library of any institute or company working in powder metallurgy."
    — Herbert Danninger, TU Vienna

    "… a ‘must’ read for students, researchers, engineers, and manufacturers involved in the processing of particulate materials. … there is the need for someone to take on the responsibility of providing an up-to-date textbook that covers both the science and technology of, in this case, PM. This book does a compelling job in addressing this need."
    Animesh Bose, FAPMI, President, Materials Processing, Inc., in International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, Volume 47, Issue 3, 2011