Power Efficiency in Broadband Wireless Communications: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Power Efficiency in Broadband Wireless Communications

1st Edition

By Pooria Varahram, Somayeh Mohammady, Borhanuddin Mohd Ali, Nasri Sulaiman

CRC Press

340 pages | 156 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-08-29
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Description

Power Efficiency in Broadband Wireless Communications focuses on the improvement of power efficiency in wireless communication systems, especially of mobile devices. Reviewing cutting-edge techniques for conserving power and boosting power efficiency, the book examines various technologies and their impact on consumer devices. It considers each technology, first by introducing the main physical layer components in recent wireless communication systems along with their shortcomings, and then proposing solutions for overcoming these shortcomings.

The book covers orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal generation and formulation and examines the advantages and disadvantages of OFDM systems compared to alternative multiplexing. It introduces one of the main drawbacks of OFDM systems, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), and discusses several PAPR techniques. It also explains how to overcome the main drawbacks of real-world OFDM system applications.

  • Considers power amplifier linearization for increasing power efficiency and reducing system costs and power dissipation
  • Describes the implementation scenario of the most promising linearization technique, digital predistortion
  • Presents some experimental demonstrations of digital predistortion when the device under test is in the loop

Because the most costly device in a communication system that has a direct impact on power efficiency and power consumption is the power amplifier, the book details the behavior and characteristics of different classes of power amplifiers. Describing the evolution of the mobile cellular communication system, it details a cost-effective technique to help you increase power efficiency, reduce system costs, and prolong battery life in next generation mobile devices.

Table of Contents

Evolution of Multiplexing Techniques in Wireless Communication Systems

Introduction

Evolution of Mobile Cellular Networks

First-Generation Cellular Systems

Second-Generation Cellular Systems

Third-Generation Cellular Systems

Future Broadband Wireless Communication

Evolution of Multiplexing Techniques

Frequency Division Multiplexing Access (FDMA) Technique

Time Division Multiplexing Access (TDMA) Technique

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Technique

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) in 4G

OFDM Pros and Cons

Key Technologies

Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing (GFDM)

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)

Space Time and Space Frequency Transmission over MIMO Networks

Summary

References

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Theory

Introduction

History of OFDM

OFDM Blocks

OFDM Mathematical Analysis and Measurements

Summary

References

Power Amplifiers in Wireless Communications

Introduction

High Power Amplifiers

Nonlinearity of Power Amplifiers

Characteristics of Power Amplifiers

Efficiency

Drain Efficiency

Power-Added Efficiency (PAE)

Output Power

Signal Gain

Trade-Off between Linearity and Efficiency

Power Amplifier Two-Tone Test

Classification of Power Amplifiers

Class A

Class B

Class AB

Class C

Class F

Other High-Efficiency Classes

Power Amplifier Memory Effects

Electrical Memory Effects

Electrothermal Memory Effects

Modeling Power Amplifiers

Modeling Power Amplifiers without Memory

Power Amplifier Model with Memory Effects

Power Amplifier Simulations

Summary

References

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

Introduction

The Effect of High PAPR on Power Amplifiers

PAPR Reduction Techniques

Distortion-Based PAPR Reduction Techniques

Clipping Method

Windowing Method

Companding Method

Distortionless-Based PAPR Reduction Methods

Coding Method

Active Constellation Extension

Partial Transmit Sequence

Enhanced PTS

Selected Mapping Method

Tone Reservation Method

Dummy Signal Insertion Method

DSI-PTS

DSI-EPTS

A Discussion on the Current PAPR Reduction Solutions

Design of the Proposed DSI-SLM Scheme

The Proposed DSI-SLM Scheme

DSI-SLM Computational Complexity

Simulation Results and Analysis

Results Discussion

The Optimum Phase Sequence with the Dummy Sequence Insertion Scheme

Design of the OPS-DSI Scheme

System Performance of the OPS-DSI Scheme

OPS-DSI Side Information

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Proposed OPS-DSI Scheme

OPS-DSI Computational Complexity

Simulation Results and Analysis

Results Discussion

Summary

References

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Implementation

Introduction

Software Implementation Design

MATLAB Simulation Design

C++ Implementation Design

Implementation Platform

Hardware Complexity

Hardware Implementation

Field Programmable Gate Array

The System Generator Tool

System Generator Design Flow

The Prototype of the Dummy Signal Insertion with Selected Mapping Scheme

The Inverse Fast Fourier Transform Prototype

Using AccelDSP Software to Prototype IFFT

Prototype of the Conventional Selected Mapping Method

Implementation of the DSI-SLM Scheme

Hardware Resource Consumption

FPGA Implementation of the Optimum Phase Sequence with the Dummy Sequence Insertion Scheme

Implementation of the OPS-DSI Transmitter

Implementation of the OPS-DSI Receiver

Implementation of Complex Division in the Receiver

Newton-Raphson Division

Error Analysis

Initial Approximation Techniques

Hardware Structure of the Complex Divider

Divisor Scaling

Newton-Raphson Method

Postscaling of Division Values

Hardware Resource Consumption of the OPS-DSI Scheme

Summary

References

Power Amplifier Linearization

Introduction

Power Amplifier Linearization Techniques

6.2.1 The Feedback Linearization Technique

6.2.2 Linear Amplification with Nonlinear

Components

6.2.3 Feedforward Linearizers

6.2.4 Predistortion Linearizers

6.2.5 Digital Predistortion

6.2.6 Memory Polynomial Predistortion

6.2.7 Complex Gain Predistortion

6.2.8 The Digital Predistortion Linearization Method

6.2.9 Complex Gain Memory Predistortion

Simulation Results of Applying Complex Gain

Memory Predistortion

Summary

References

Digital Predistortion Implementation

Introduction

Simulation with Xilinx Blocksets

7.2.1 System Generator

Xilinx Embedded Development Kit

Field Programmable Gate Array

7.4.1 Description

7.4.2 Functional Description

Complex Gain Memory Predistortion Implementation

7.5.1 Complex Multiplier

7.5.2 Lookup Table (LUT)

Complex Divider Implementation

Results of FPGA Implementation

Digital Signal Processing Implementation of Digital Predistortion

DP Block Design

7.9.1 Linear Convergence Adaptation Algorithm

7.9.2 Adaptation Block

7.9.3 Complex Multiplier

7.9.4 Saleh Model Amplifier

7.9.5 The IQSR Block

Summary

References

Experimental Results

Introduction

Experimental Setup

Experimental Results

Comparison between Simulation and Experimental Results

Summary

References

Appendix:

Complex Baseband Representation of Bandpass Signals

Index

About the Authors

Pooria Varahram received his B.Sc. in electrical and electronics engineering from Khajenasir University of Technology in 2002, his M.Sc. in telecommunications engineering from Tarbiat Modares University in 2004, and Ph.D. in wireless communication engineering from the University of Putra Malaysia (UPM) in 2010. He has more than five years of experience in designing and developing a range of electronic and telecommunication-related projects. He has completed his Post PhD in UPM in 2012. He is now senior lecturer in UPM since January 2013. His research interests are PAPR reduction in OFDM systems, linearization of power amplifiers, and microwave power amplifier design.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC041000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications
TEC061000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications