1st Edition

Power System Protection and Relaying Computer-Aided Design Using SCADA Technology

By Samir I. Abood, John Fuller Copyright 2024
    404 Pages 321 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This textbook provides an excellent focus on the advanced topics of the power system protection philosophy and gives exciting analysis methods and a cover of the important applications in the power systems relaying. Each chapter opens with a historical profile or career talk, followed by an introduction that states the chapter objectives and links the chapter to the previous ones, and then the introduction for each chapter. All principles are presented in a lucid, logical, step-by-step approach. As much as possible, the authors avoid wordiness and detail overload that could hide concepts and impede understanding. In each chapter, the authors present some of the solved examples and applications using a computer program.

    Toward the end of each chapter, the authors discuss some application aspects of the concepts covered in the chapter using a computer program.

    In recognition of requirements by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) on integrating computer tools, the use of SCADA technology is encouraged in a student-friendly manner. SCADA technology using the Lucas-Nulle GmbH system is introduced and applied gradually throughout the book.

    Practice problems immediately follow each illustrative example. Students can follow the example step by step to solve the practice problems without flipping pages or looking at the book's end for answers. These practice problems test students' comprehension and reinforce key concepts before moving on to the next section.

    Power System Protection and Relaying: Computer-Aided Design Using SCADA Technology is intended as a textbook for a senior-level undergraduate student in electrical and computer engineering departments and is appropriate for graduate students, industry professionals, researchers, and academics.

    The book has more than ten categories and millions of power readers. It can be used in more than 400 electrical engineering departments at top universities worldwide.

    Based on this information, targeted lists of the engineers from specific disciplines including electrical, computer, power control, technical power system, protection, design, and distribution engineers.

    Designed for a three–hours semester course on "power system protection and relaying," the prerequisite for a course based on this book are knowledge of standard mathematics, including calculus and complex numbers.







    Chapter 1  Introduction to Power Protection Systems

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Philosophy of Power System Protection

    1.3. Effects of Faults

    1.4. Performance Requirements of Protection System

    1.5. Basic Protection Scheme Components

    1.6. Protective Relay

    1.7. Transducers

    1.7.1. Current Transformer

    1.7.2. Voltage Transformer

    1.7.3. Magnetic Voltage Transformer (VT)

    1.7.4. Capacitive Voltage Transformers (CVT)

    1.8. Relay Connection to the Primary System

    1.9. CT Error

    1.10. Protective Zones

    1.10.1. Back-up Protection

    1.10.2. Selectivity and Zones of Protection Selectivity

    1.11. R-X Diagram


    Chapter 2  Protective Relays

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. Data Required for the Relay Setting

    2.3. Class of Measuring Relays

    2.4. Basic Definitions and Standard Device Numbers

    2.4.1. Terms Definitions

    2.4.2. Devices Numbers

    2.5. Classification of Relays

    2.6. Types of Relays

    2.6.1. Electromagnetic Relays

    2.7. Comparator Relays

    2.7.1. Generalized Amplitude Comparator

    2.8. Advantages Of Electromechanical Relays

    2.9. Solid-State Relays

    2.9.1. Solid State Relay Principle of Operation

    2.10. Computerized Relay

    2.10.1. Digital Relays

    2.10.2. Digital Relays Operation

    2.10.3. Signal Path for Microprocessor Relays

    2.10.4. Digital Relay Construction

    2.10.5. Advantages of Digital Relays

    2.11. Numerical Relays

    2.11.1. Numerical Measurement Treatment

    2.11.2. Advantages of Numerical Technology

    2.12. Electromagnetic vs. Computerized


    Chapter 3 Protection Systems with SCADA Technology

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Background

    3.3.  SCADA System and its Levels

    3.4. Basics functions of the SCADA systems

    3.4.1. Remote Supervision

    3.4.2. Remote Control of the Process

    3.4.3. Graphic Trends Presentation

    3.4.4. Alarm Presentations

    3.4.5. Storage of Historical Information

    3.5.  SCADA Architecture Development

    3.6. Security

    3.7. Future Implementations

    3.8. Hardware Devices

    Chapter 4  Faults Analysis

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2. Fault Concept

    4.3. Types of Faults

    4.4. Symmetrical Fault Analysis

    4.4.1. Simplified Models of Synchronous Machines for Transient Analysis

    4.4.2. Transient Phenomena

    4.4.3. Three–Phase Short Circuit – Unloaded Synchronous Machine

    4.4.4. Effect of Load Current

    4.5. Unsymmetrical Faults Analysis

    4.6. Symmetrical Components

    4.6.1. Positive-Sequence Components

    4.6.2. Negative-Sequence Components

    4.6.3. Zero-Sequence Components

    4.7. Effect of Symmetrical Components on Impedance

    4.8. Phase Shift Δ/Υ Connection Δ/Υ

    4.9. Sequence Network of Unloaded Generator

    4.9.1. Positive-Sequence Network

    4.9.2. Negative-Sequence Network

    4.9.3. Zero Sequence

    4.10. Analysis of Unsymmetrical Faults Using the Method of Symmetrical Component

    4.10.1. Single Line-to-Ground Fault

    4.10.2. Line-to-Line Fault

    4.10.3. Double Line-to-Ground Fault

    4.11. Fault Classification

    4.12. Assumptions and Simplifications

    4.13. Fault Voltage-Amps

    4.14. Fault Analysis by the SCADA system

    4.15. Measurement of Zero-Sequence Impedance

    4.16. Symmetric (Three-Pole) Short Circuit

    4.17. Asymmetric Short Circuits

    4.17.1. Single-Pole Short Circuit (Earth Fault)

    4.17.2. Two-Pole Short Circuit with Earth Fault

    4.17.3.Two-Pole Short Circuit without Earth fault

    4.18 Earth Faults and Their Compensation.

    4.18.1. Earth-Fault Compensation

    4.18.2. Earth Fwith an Isolated Neutral Point

    4.19. Overcurrent Time Protection


    Chapter 5  Fuses and Circuit Breakers


    5.2. Load and Fuse Current

    5.3. Fuses, Sectionalizes, Reclosers

    5.4. ELCB, MCB, and MCCB

    5.4.1. Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB)

    5.4.2. Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB)

    5.4.3. Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB)

    5.5. Construction and Working of a Fuse

    5.6. Characteristics of a Fuse

    5.6.1. Fuse Current Carrying Capacity

    5.6.2. Breaking Capacity

    5.6.3. Rated Voltage of Fuse

    5.6.4. I2t Value of Fuse

    5.6.5. Response Characteristic of a Fuse

    5.7. Classification of Fuses

    5.8. Types of Fuses

    5.8.1. DC Fuses

    5.8.2. AC Fuses

    5.9. Cartridge Fuses

    5.10. D – Type Cartridge Fuse

    5.11. HRC (High Rupturing Capacity) Fuse or Link Type Cartridge Fuse

    5.12. High Voltage Fuses

    5.13. Automotive, Blade Type, and Fuses of Bolted Type

    5.14. SMD Fuses (Surface Mount Fuse), Chip, Radial, and Lead Fuses

    5.15. Fuse Characteristics

    5.15.1. Fuse Type

    5.15.2. Rated Currents and Voltages

    5.15.3 Conventional Non-Fusing and Fusing Currents

    5.15.4. Operating Zone

    5.15.5. Breaking capacity

    5.15.6.  Selectivity 232

    5.16. Rewirable Fuses

    5.17. Thermal Fuses

    5.18. Resettable Fuses

    5.19. Uses and Applications of Fuses

    5.20. High Voltage Circuit Breakers

    5.20.1. Oil Circuit Breakers

    5.20.2. SF6 Circuit Breakers

    5.20.3. Vacuum Circuit Breakers

    5.20.4. Air-Blast Circuit Breakers

    5.21. Directional Overcurrent Time Protection

    5.22. Testing Direction Recognition


    Chapter 6 Overcurrent Relay

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. Overcurrent Relay

    6.2.1. Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay

    6.2.2. Definite Time Overcurrent Relay

    6.2.3. Inverse Time Overcurrent Relay

    6.2.4. Inverse Definite Minimum Time Relay

    6.2.5. Very Inverse Relay

    6.2.6. Extremely Inverse Relay

    6.2.7. Directional Overcurrent

    6.3. Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM) and Time Multiplier Setting (TMS)

    6.4. Standard Formula for Overcurrent Relay

    6.5. Relay Coordination

    6.5.1. Primary and Backup Protection

    6.5.2. Method of Relay Coordination

    6.6. Requirements for Proper Relay Coordination

    6.7. Hardware and Software for Overcurrent Relays

    6.8.Overvoltage and Undervoltage Protection

    6.8.1.Under Voltage Test

    6.8.2. Overvoltage Test

    6.8.3. Hysteresis Test

    6.9. Directional Power Protection

    6.10. Testing Forward and Reverse Power

    6.10.1. Test of Forward Power

    6.10.2. Test of Reverse Power


    Chapter 7 Transmission Line Protection

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Distance Relay

    7.3. Setting of Distance Relay

    7.4. Drawback of Distance Relay

    7.5. Parallel Ring Mains

    7.6. Impedance, Reactance, and MHO Relay

    7.6.1. Impedance Relay Protection Setting Diagram

    7.6.2. Reactance Relay Protection Setting Diagram

    7.6.3. MHO Relay Protection Setting Diagram

    7.7. Fundamentals of Differential Protection Systems

    7.8. Directional Overcurrent Relay

    7.9. Direction or Phase of the Fault Current

    7.10. PROTECTION OF PARALLEL LINES (Parallel operation)

    7.11. Minimum Picu-Up Value

    7.12. Parametrizing Non-Directional Relays

    7.13.Time Overcurrent Relays

    7.14. Directional Time Overcurrent Relays

    7.15. High-Speed Distance Protection

    7.16. Further Settings

    7.16.1. Characteristic Data


    Chapter 8  Transformer Protection

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Transformer Functions

    8.2.1. Transformer Size

    8.2.2. Location and Function

    8.2.3. Voltage

    8.2.4. Connection and Design

    8.3. Faults on Power Transformer

    8.4. Main Types of Transformer Protection

    8.4.1. Percentage Differential Protection

    8.4.2. Overcurrent Protection

    8.4.3. Earth Fault and Restricted Earth Fault Protection

    8.4.4. Buchholz Relay

    8.4.5. Oil Pressure Relief Devices

    8.4.6. Oil Temperature (F49)

    8.4.7. Winding Temperature (F49)

    8.5. Voltage Balance Relay

    8.6. Transformer Magnetising Inrush

    8.6.1. The Magnitude of Magnetising Inrush Current

    8.6.2. Harmonics of Magnetising Inrush Current

    8.7. Modelling of Power Transformer Differential Protection

    8.7.1. Differential Protection Difficulties

    8.8. Percentage Differential Relay Modeling Using MATLAB

    8.9. Phasor Model

    8.10. Three-Phase-to-Ground Fault at the Loaded Transformer

    8.11. Magnetizing Inrush Current

    8.12. Three Phases to Ground Fault at the Loaded Transformer

    8.13. Phase-to-Ground External Fault at the Loaded Transformer

    8.14. Two-Phase-to-Ground Fault at the Loaded Transformer


    Chapter 9  Generator, Motor,and Busbar Protection

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Generator Fault Types

    9.2.1. Rotor Protection

    9.2.2. Unbalanced Loading

    9.2.3. Overload Protection

    9.2.4. Overspeed Protection

    9.2.5. Overvoltage Protection

    9.2.6. Failure or Prime-Mover

    9.2.7. Loss of Excitation

    9.3. Effects of Generator Bus Faults

    9.4. Internal Faults

    9.4.1. Differential Protection (Phase Faults)

    9.4.2. Differential Protection (Ground Faults)

    9.4.3. Field Grounds

    9.4.4. Phase Fault Backup Protection

    9.4.5. The 95% Stator Earth Fault Protection (64G1)

    9.4.6. The 100% Stator Earth Fault Protection (64G2)

    9.4.7. Voltage Restrained Overcurrent Protection (51/27 G)

    9.4.8. Low Forward Power Relay (37G)

    9.4.9. Reverse Power Relay (32G)

    9.4.10. Generator under Frequency Protection (81 G)

    9.4.11. Generator Overvoltage Protection (59 G)

    9.5. Typical Relay Settings

    9.6. Motor Protection

    9.6.1. Typical Protective Settings for Motors

    9.6.2. Motor Protective Device

    9.6.3. Motor Protection by Fuses

    9.87Bus Bars Protection

    9.7.1. Bus Protection Schemes

    9.7.2. Bus Differential Relaying Schemes

    Chapter 10  High Impedance Faults

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Characteristics of High Impedance Faults

    10.3. HIF's Detection

    10.3.1. Feature Extraction

    10.3.2. Pattern Recognition (Classification)

    10.4. Power Distribution Network

    10.5. Source Model

    10.6. Power Transformer Model

    10.7. Line Model

    10.8. Load Model

    10.9. Shunt Capacitor Model

    10.10. Nonlinear Load Model

    10.11. Induction Motor Model

    10.12. Fault Model

    10.12.1. Symmetrical Fault Model

    10.12.2. Line-to-Ground Fault Model

    10.12.3. Line-to-Line Fault Model

    10.13. Procedural Events Modeling and Techniques

    10.14. The Fourier Transform


    Chapter 11 Grounding of Power System

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. The Concept of Grounding

    11.3. Purposes of System Grounding

    11.4. Methods of System-Neutral Grounding

    11.4.1. Ungrounded System

    11.4.2. Methods of System-Neutral Grounding

    11.4.3. Reactance Grounding

    11.5. Equivalent-Circuit Representation of Grounding Systems

    11.6. Touch and Step Voltages

    11.7. Typical Inspection

    11.8. Grounding Electrodes

    11.9. Grounding Verification Control System

    11.10. Soil Measurements

    11.10.1. The Soil Model

    11.10.2. Soil Characteristics

    11.10.3. Wenner Method

    11.10.4. Driven Rod Technique

    11.11. Resistance of Grounding Systems

    11.12. Types of the Electrode Grounding System

    11.12.1. Hemispherical Electrode Hidden in Globe

    11.12.2. Two Hemispheres Inserted in Earth

    11.12.3. Other Simple Grounding Systems

    11.13. Measurement of Ground Electrode Resistance

    11.13.1. Three Electrode Method

    11.13.2. Show up of Potential Method

    11.13.3. Theory of the Fall of Potential

    11.13.4. Hemispherical Electrodes

    11.13.5. Electrical Center Method


    Appendix A: Relay and Circuit Breaker Applications




    Samir I. Abood received his BS and MS from the University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq, in 1996 and 2001, respectively. He earned his PhD in the Electrical and Computer Engineering from Prairie View A&M University. From 1997 to 2001, he worked as an engineer at the University of Technology. From 2001 to 2003, he was a professor at the University of Baghdad and Al-Nahrain University. From 2003 to 2016, he was a Middle Technical University/Baghdad-Iraq professor. He is an electrical and computer engineering professor at Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View. He is the author of 30 papers and 12 books. His main research interests are sustainable power and energy systems, microgrids, power electronics and motor drives, digital PID controllers, digital methods for electrical measurements, digital signal processing, and control systems.

    John Fuller is an electrical and computer engineering professor at Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, Texas. He received a BSEE degree from Prairie View A&M University and a master’s degree and a PhD degree from the University of Missouri, Columbia. He has researched some funded projects over a 48-year teaching career in higher education. Some of the major projects of his research efforts are hybrid energy systems, stepper motor control, the design and building of a solar-powered car, nuclear survivability and characterization on non-volatile memory devices, nuclear detector/sensor evaluation, and some other electrical and computer-related projects. Dr. Fuller is presently the coordinator of Title III funding to the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering in developing a solar-powered home. He is also the Center for Big Data Management associate director in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. In addition to teaching and research duties with college-level students, he is also active in the PVAMU summer programs for middle and high school students. Dr. Fuller has also held administrative positions as Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering and as interim dean of the College of Engineering at Prairie View A&M University. In 2018, he was recognized as the Texas A&M System Regents Professor.