Power Transformer Design Practices
- Available for pre-order. Item will ship after March 22, 2021
The book presents basic theories of transformer operation, design principles and methods used in power transformer designing work, and also includes limitation criteria, effective utilization of material and calculation examples to enhance reader’s techniques of transformer design and testing.
- Core and winding commonly used, and their performances.
- Insulation structures and materials, methods for improvements on dielectric strengths on partial discharge, breakdown and electrical creepage.
- Losses and impedance calculations, major influential factors and methods to minimize load loss.
- Cooling design, and the method to obtain effective cooling.
- Short circuit forces calculations, the ways to reduced the short circuit forces and measures to raise withstand abilities.
- No-load and load-sound levels, the influential factors and trends, and abatement techniques.
- Auto transformer special features, its stabilizing winding function and its adequate size is discussed particularly.
- Tests and diagnosis.
The ways to optimize design is also discussed throughout the book as a goal to achieve best performances on economic design.
The book is a great reference material for engineers, students, teachers, researchers and anyone involved in the field associated with power transformer design, manufacture, testing, application and service maintenance. It gives high level of details to help future research and development to maintain electrical power as reliable and economical energy resource.
Table of Contents
1.1 Basic theory
1.2 Practical constrains on the design
1.3 Active part material costs
2.1 Core materials
2.2 Core types
2.3 No-load loss
2.4 Exciting characteristics
2.5 Inrush current
2.6 Test failures of no-load loss
2.7 Core insulation and ground
2.8 Flux density generated by quasi-DC current
2.9 Gapped core
3.1 Types of winding
3.3 Half –turn effect
3.4 Axial split windings
3.5 Cables used in winding
4.1 Voltages on transformer terminals
4.2 Voltage inside transformer
4.3 Insulation materials
4.4 Partial discharge and insulation structure
4.5 Major insulation design
4.6 Minor insulation design
4.7 Lead insulation
4.8 Typical electric field patterns
5.1 Positive sequence / negative sequence impedance
5.2 Zero-sequence Impedance
6. Load loss
6.1 I2R loss
6.2 Winding eddy current loss
6.3 Circulating current loss
6.4 Circulating current loss in winding leads
6.5 Losses in metallic structure parts
7.1 Basic knowledge
7.2 Temperature rises of oil
7.3 Loading capacity
7.4 Cooling of winding
8. Short circuit obligation
8.1 Short-circuit events
8.2 Radial and axial electromagnetic forces
8.3 Failure modes
8.4 Short-circuit forces in special transformers
8.5 Short-circuit current calculation
8.6 Impedance effects on short-circuit force
8.7 Short-circuit forces on leads
8.8 Thermal capability of withstanding short circuits
8.9 Measures for robust mechanical structure.
8.10 Compressive stress on radial spacer
8.11 Axial bending stress on conductor
8.12 Tilting force
8.13 Hoop stress
9. Sound levels
9.1 No load sound
9.2 Load sound
9.3 Fans and pump sound
9.4 Total sound
9.5 Sound level measurements
10.1 Basic relations
10.2 Insulation consideration
10.3 Tap winding electrical locations
10.4 Winding physical disposition
10.5 Use of auxiliary transformers
10.6 Zero sequence impedance and delta connected winding
11.1 Preliminary tests
11.2 No-load losses and excitation current
11.3 Lightning impulse and switching impulse
11.4 Applied voltage
11.5 Induced voltage test and partial discharge measurement
11.6 Load losses and impedance voltage
11.7 Temperature rise
11.8 Audible sound level
Fang Zhu is currently Engineering Manager at R. E. Uptegraff, USA.
Baitun Yang currently Senior Engineer at R. E. Uptegraff, USA.