3rd Edition

Practical Drug Enforcement

By Michael D. Lyman Copyright 2007
    364 Pages 29 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

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    Criminal investigation is a dynamic endeavor impacted by changes in human nature, statutory and constitutional laws, and methods of operation. New challenges are constantly posed for the investigator and the investigation of drug offenses is no exception. It takes advanced skills to keep pace with the criminal mind. Unfortunately, the skills acquired in basic police training are just that: basic. In order to stay ahead of their criminal counterparts, drug enforcement officers must seek extensive, ongoing training and knowledge, not just to secure a lawful conviction but to keep themselves and the public safe.

    This new edition of the bestselling Practical Drug Enforcement provides a thoroughly revised and updated guide to the contemporary aspects of covert criminal investigations and the management of the drug enforcement unit itself. Appealing to a wide variety of law enforcement officers in all jurisdictions, it addresses different methods of detection, investigation, surveillance, and capture of drug traffickers as well as identifies those methods commonly employed by criminals to avoid detection. Drawing from the author’s expertise in the field, and as a nationally recognized consultant, this book contains practical hands-on information for the officer in the street and the administrator coordinating operations. This edition includes new drug identification photos, charts, and updated statistics, as well as an entirely new chapter on the surreptitious monitoring of suspects, entrapment, and “possession with intent” cases.

    New topics include—

  • Drug courier profiling
  • High-tech surveillance, including GPS and thermal imaging
  • Raid procedures for clandestine labs
  • Drug diversion by physicians and pharmacies
  • Searching, seizing, and handling drug evidence
  • Reverse sting operations
  • Undercover work, risks, and stress
  • Informant management
  • Designed as an investigative resource on current drug enforcement techniques, Practical Drug Enforcement, Third Edition allows law enforcement personnel from a variety of jurisdictions and priorities to maintain concurrent initiatives regarding the identification, apprehension, and prosecution of all known drug offenders and drug traffickers at local and national levels.

    Initiation of Drug Investigations: Sources of Information
    Case Initiation,
    Target Selection,
    Receiving Information,
    Verifying Information, Case Preparation,
    Budgeting Resources,
    Other Information Sources
    Outside Law Enforcement Agencies
    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
    The Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
    The U.S. Customs Service
    The U.S. Marshal Service
    Other Criminal Justice Agencies
    Probation and Parole Offices
    Court Records
    Prosecutor’s Records
    Public Service Agencies
    State Departments of Motor Vehicles
    Social Service Agencies
    Medical Examiner’s Office
    City or State Licensing Departments
    Tax Departments
    Departments of Highways or Roads
    Health Departments
    Sanitation Departments
    Boards of Education
    Practical Drug Enforcement
    Private Sector Sources
    Telephone/Cellular Phone Companies
    Public Utility Companies
    Credit Agencies
    Telegraph Companies
    Other Sources
    Undercover Intelligence
    Suggested Readings
    Undercover Operations
    Preparing for Undercover Assignments
    The Roles of Officers
    Standard-Issue Police Equipment
    Special Equipment
    Recording Devices
    Undercover Identification
    Working Undercover
    The Cover Story
    Protecting the Undercover Officer’s Cover
    Drug-Buy Operations
    The Buy–Walk Procedure
    The Buy–Bust Procedure
    Location of the Buy
    Outdoor Locations
    Indoor Locations
    Planning the Drug Buy
    Prebuy Planning
    Postbuy Planning
    The Flash-Roll
    Conspiracy Investigations
    Element One: The Agreement
    Element Two: The Overt Act
    Types of Conspiracies
    The Chain Conspiracy
    The Wheel Conspiracy
    The Enterprise Conspiracy
    Forfeiture Sanctions
    Sharing Provisions of Federal Forfeiture Laws
    The Vehicle Indemnity Form
    Identification of Drug Evidence
    Narcotics of Natural Origin
    Semisynthetic Narcotics
    Synthetic Narcotics
    Fentanyl 5
    Narcotic Treatment Drugs
    Street Terms: Cocaine
    Rohypnol and Drug-Facilitated Rape
    Practical Drug Enforcement
    Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
    GHB and Drug-Facilitated Rape
    Chloral Hydrate
    Hashish Oil
    Peyote and Mescaline
    New Hallucinogens
    MDMA (Ecstasy) and other Phenethylamines
    Phencyclidine and Related Drugs
    Informant Management
    Who Becomes an Informant?
    Types of Informants
    Psychological Motivations of Informants
    The Fear Motivation
    The Revenge Motivation
    The Perverse Motivation
    The Mercenary Motivation
    The Repentance Motivation
    The Egotistical Motivation
    The Unwitting Informant
    Informant Interviews
    Contracting an Informant
    Method of Payment
    Expenditures of Official Drug Funds
    Criminal Activity by the Informant
    The Cooperating Individual Agreement
    Informant Payments
    Use of Female Informants by Male Officers
    Statement of Officer-Informant Relationship
    Informant Statements
    Procedures for Drug Purchases
    Inside Drug Buys
    Multiple Drug Buys
    Controlled Drug Buys (Informant Drug Buys)
    Mutual Agreements and Understandings
    The Cover Story
    Method of Introduction
    Negotiating Amounts
    Time of Day
    Manipulation of Funds
    Protection of Informant Identity
    Wilson v. United States
    Special Informant Problems
    The Informant with “Cold Feet”
    The Informant and the Target’s Right to Counsel
    Other Problems with Informants
    Officer-Informant Relationships
    Informants of the Opposite Sex
    Crimes Committed by the Informant
    Officers Who “Own” Their Informants
    The Informant in the Courtroom
    The Controlled Drug Purchase
    Surveillance Operations
    Preparing for the Surveillance
    Foot Surveillance
    One-Man Surveillance
    Two-Man Surveillance
    ABC Method
    Progressive or “Leapfrog” Method
    Difficulties in Surveillance Operations
    Vehicle Surveillance
    Fixed Surveillance
    Electronic Surveillance
    Audio Surveillance
    Bumper Beepers
    Passive Monitoring
    Video and Photo Surveillance
    Undercover Apartments
    Surveillance of Undercover Personnel
    Practical Drug Enforcement
    Personnel Selection
    Assignment of Duties
    Team Planning
    Stakeout Postevent Procedures
    Foot Pursuits
    Satellite-Assisted Surveillance
    Thermal Imaging
    The Mechanics of Thermal Imaging
    Thermal Imaging Applications
    Structure Profiles
    Disturbed Services/Hidden Compartments
    Legal Limitations of Thermal Imaging
    Serving High-Risk Warrants
    Classifying High-Risk Warrants
    Step One: Planning
    Step Two: Briefing
    Step Three: Execution
    Step Four: Critique
    Booby Traps
    Exterior Booby Traps
    Safety Precautions
    Types of Traps
    The Punji Pit
    The Foot Breaker
    The Trotline
    The Mousetrap
    Interior Booby Traps
    Safety Precautions
    Types of Traps
    Magazine Bomb
    Hot Light
    Armstrong’s Mixture
    Other Weapons
    Drug Raid Procedures
    Checklist for Raid Preparation
    The Raid Leader
    Tactical Considerations
    External Control Methods
    Immediate Reaction Maneuver
    L-Shaped Clearance Maneuver
    L-Shaped Sweep Maneuver
    Internal Control Methods
    The Wraparound Entry Method
    The Crisscross Entry Method
    The High-Risk Entry Method
    The Final Raid Report
    Drug Enforcement and the Patrol Officer
    Patrol Enforcement of Drug Violations
    Intelligence Gathering
    Street Observations
    Unrelated Arrests
    Open-Air Drug Markets and Police Patrol
    Open-Air Drug Markets
    Drug Dealer Profiles
    The Jamaican Drug Operation Case Study
    Patrol Response to Open-Air Markets
    The Coordinated Response
    Conducting Area and Vehicle Searches
    Interdicting Drugs in Transit
    Major Transportation Routes
    Identifying Drug Couriers
    Observing the Behavior of Drug Couriers
    Investigative Stops Using Drug Courier Profiles
    Profiling: The Legal Environment
    Clandestine Laboratories
    Safety Considerations
    Identifying Laboratory Operations
    Investigation Techniques
    Seizure and Forfeiture
    Health and Safety Regulations
    Practical Drug Enforcement
    Chemicals Found in Laboratories
    Hazardous Chemicals
    Conducting a Laboratory Raid
    Contamination Prevention and Decontamination
    Controlling Precursor Chemicals
    Pharmaceutical Diversion
    Drug Control Legislation
    Drug Types and Regulations
    Diversion Tactics
    Physician Investigations
    Doctors Who Divert Drugs
    Nurses Who Divert Drugs
    Drug Theft
    Substituting Drugs
    Undercover “Patients”
    Medical License Control
    Prescription Clinics
    Stress and Pain Clinics
    Pharmacy Investigations
    Prescription Forgeries
    Punishment of Violators
    Professional Patients (the “Scammer)
    The Fat Lady Scam
    The Breast Cancer Scam
    The Toothache Scam
    The Altered Scrip Scam
    The Phantom Refill Scam
    The Drug Audit
    Problems in Diversion Investigations
    Special Enforcement Operations
    Marijuana Cultivation
    Growing Marijuana
    Commercial Grade
    Indoor Growing Operations
    Evidence of Marijuana Cultivation
    Domestic Eradication
    Smuggling Investigations
    Air Smuggling
    Aircrafts for Smuggling
    Aircraft Data Plates
    Search of a Typical Light Plane
    Search of Commercial Aircraft
    The Pilots
    Ground Smuggling
    Search of a Typical Automobile
    Reverse Sting Operations
    Planning the Reverse Sting
    Manpower Considerations
    Conducting the Sting
    Legal Considerations in Drug Enforcement Operations
    Surreptitious Monitoring of Suspect’s Conversations
    Types of Surreptitiously Monitored Statements
    Fourth Amendment Challenges
    Fifth Amendment Challenges
    Sixth Amendment Challenges
    Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel in Police Car and in Interrogation Room Monitoring Scenarios
    Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel in Jail Monitoring Scenarios
    The Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel in the “Unrelated Charge”
    Monitoring of Suspects in Sixth Amendment Situations: “Elicitation” vs. “Listening Post”
    Summary of Sixth Amendment
    Monitoring under Federal and State Statutes
    Federal Law: The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act
    State law
    Sorrels v. United States
    Sherman v. United States
    Practical Drug Enforcement
    United States v. Russell
    Hampton v. United States
    Jacobson v. United States
    Definition of “Predisposition”
    Factors in Predisposition
    Possession with Intent to Distribute Drugs
    Actual Possession
    Constructive Possession
    Joint Possession
    Lookouts, Brokers, and Other Participants
    Possession with Intent to Distribute
    Large Amounts of Cash
    Addiction of the Possessor
    Presence of Paraphernalia
    Association with Known Dealers, Gang Membership
    Searching and Seizing Drug Evidence
    Searching the Suspect’s Premises
    Searching the Suspect’s Vehicle
    The Front-End
    The Interior
    The Rear Area
    The Underside
    Searching Pickup Trucks and Work Vehicles
    Other Vehicles
    Consent Searches
    Dwelling Searches
    Handling Drug Evidence
    Counting and Weighing Evidence
    Sealing and Labeling Evidence
    Suggested Reading
    Appendix I: Drug Scheduling
    Appendix II
    Appendix III: Code of Federal Regulations: Section 1310.02 — Substances Covered


    Michael D. Lyman, Vicky Manning