Practical Drug Enforcement: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Practical Drug Enforcement

3rd Edition

By Michael D. Lyman


368 pages | 29 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780849398087
pub: 2006-11-16
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429245411
pub: 2006-11-16
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Criminal investigation is a dynamic endeavor impacted by changes in human nature, statutory and constitutional laws, and methods of operation. New challenges are constantly posed for the investigator and the investigation of drug offenses is no exception. It takes advanced skills to keep pace with the criminal mind. Unfortunately, the skills acquired in basic police training are just that: basic. In order to stay ahead of their criminal counterparts, drug enforcement officers must seek extensive, ongoing training and knowledge, not just to secure a lawful conviction but to keep themselves and the public safe.

This new edition of the bestselling Practical Drug Enforcement provides a thoroughly revised and updated guide to the contemporary aspects of covert criminal investigations and the management of the drug enforcement unit itself. Appealing to a wide variety of law enforcement officers in all jurisdictions, it addresses different methods of detection, investigation, surveillance, and capture of drug traffickers as well as identifies those methods commonly employed by criminals to avoid detection. Drawing from the author’s expertise in the field, and as a nationally recognized consultant, this book contains practical hands-on information for the officer in the street and the administrator coordinating operations. This edition includes new drug identification photos, charts, and updated statistics, as well as an entirely new chapter on the surreptitious monitoring of suspects, entrapment, and “possession with intent” cases.

New topics include—

  • Drug courier profiling
  • High-tech surveillance, including GPS and thermal imaging
  • Raid procedures for clandestine labs
  • Drug diversion by physicians and pharmacies
  • Searching, seizing, and handling drug evidence
  • Reverse sting operations
  • Undercover work, risks, and stress
  • Informant management
  • Designed as an investigative resource on current drug enforcement techniques, Practical Drug Enforcement, Third Edition allows law enforcement personnel from a variety of jurisdictions and priorities to maintain concurrent initiatives regarding the identification, apprehension, and prosecution of all known drug offenders and drug traffickers at local and national levels.

    Table of Contents

    Initiation of Drug Investigations: Sources of Information

    Case Initiation,

    Target Selection,

    Receiving Information,

    Verifying Information, Case Preparation,

    Budgeting Resources,

    Other Information Sources

    Outside Law Enforcement Agencies

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

    The Internal Revenue Service (IRS)

    The U.S. Customs Service

    The U.S. Marshal Service

    Other Criminal Justice Agencies

    Probation and Parole Offices

    Court Records

    Prosecutor’s Records

    Public Service Agencies

    State Departments of Motor Vehicles

    Social Service Agencies

    Medical Examiner’s Office

    City or State Licensing Departments

    Tax Departments

    Departments of Highways or Roads

    Health Departments

    Sanitation Departments

    Boards of Education

    Practical Drug Enforcement

    Private Sector Sources

    Telephone/Cellular Phone Companies

    Public Utility Companies


    Credit Agencies

    Telegraph Companies

    Other Sources

    Undercover Intelligence



    Suggested Readings

    Undercover Operations

    Preparing for Undercover Assignments


    The Roles of Officers


    Standard-Issue Police Equipment

    Special Equipment



    Recording Devices

    Undercover Identification


    Working Undercover

    The Cover Story

    Protecting the Undercover Officer’s Cover


    Drug-Buy Operations



    The Buy–Walk Procedure

    The Buy–Bust Procedure

    Location of the Buy

    Outdoor Locations

    Indoor Locations


    Planning the Drug Buy

    Prebuy Planning

    Postbuy Planning

    The Flash-Roll

    Conspiracy Investigations

    Element One: The Agreement

    Element Two: The Overt Act

    Types of Conspiracies

    The Chain Conspiracy

    The Wheel Conspiracy

    The Enterprise Conspiracy

    Forfeiture Sanctions

    Sharing Provisions of Federal Forfeiture Laws

    The Vehicle Indemnity Form

    Identification of Drug Evidence


    Narcotics of Natural Origin




    Semisynthetic Narcotics





    Synthetic Narcotics




    Fentanyl 5

    Narcotic Treatment Drugs





    Street Terms: Cocaine








    Rohypnol and Drug-Facilitated Rape

    Practical Drug Enforcement

    Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)

    GHB and Drug-Facilitated Rape

    Chloral Hydrate





    Hashish Oil



    Peyote and Mescaline

    New Hallucinogens

    MDMA (Ecstasy) and other Phenethylamines


    Phencyclidine and Related Drugs


    Informant Management

    Who Becomes an Informant?

    Types of Informants

    Psychological Motivations of Informants

    The Fear Motivation

    The Revenge Motivation

    The Perverse Motivation

    The Mercenary Motivation

    The Repentance Motivation

    The Egotistical Motivation

    The Unwitting Informant

    Informant Interviews

    Contracting an Informant

    Method of Payment

    Expenditures of Official Drug Funds

    Criminal Activity by the Informant

    The Cooperating Individual Agreement

    Informant Payments

    Use of Female Informants by Male Officers

    Statement of Officer-Informant Relationship

    Informant Statements

    Procedures for Drug Purchases

    Inside Drug Buys

    Multiple Drug Buys

    Controlled Drug Buys (Informant Drug Buys)

    Mutual Agreements and Understandings

    The Cover Story

    Method of Introduction

    Negotiating Amounts

    Time of Day

    Manipulation of Funds

    Protection of Informant Identity

    Wilson v. United States

    Special Informant Problems

    The Informant with “Cold Feet”

    The Informant and the Target’s Right to Counsel

    Other Problems with Informants

    Officer-Informant Relationships

    Informants of the Opposite Sex

    Crimes Committed by the Informant

    Officers Who “Own” Their Informants

    The Informant in the Courtroom

    The Controlled Drug Purchase

    Surveillance Operations

    Preparing for the Surveillance

    Foot Surveillance

    One-Man Surveillance

    Two-Man Surveillance

    ABC Method

    Progressive or “Leapfrog” Method

    Difficulties in Surveillance Operations

    Vehicle Surveillance

    Fixed Surveillance

    Electronic Surveillance

    Audio Surveillance

    Bumper Beepers


    Passive Monitoring

    Video and Photo Surveillance

    Undercover Apartments

    Surveillance of Undercover Personnel



    Practical Drug Enforcement

    Personnel Selection



    Assignment of Duties

    Team Planning




    Stakeout Postevent Procedures

    Foot Pursuits

    Satellite-Assisted Surveillance

    Thermal Imaging

    The Mechanics of Thermal Imaging

    Thermal Imaging Applications

    Structure Profiles

    Disturbed Services/Hidden Compartments

    Legal Limitations of Thermal Imaging

    Serving High-Risk Warrants

    Classifying High-Risk Warrants

    Step One: Planning

    Step Two: Briefing

    Step Three: Execution

    Step Four: Critique

    Booby Traps

    Exterior Booby Traps

    Safety Precautions

    Types of Traps

    The Punji Pit

    The Foot Breaker

    The Trotline

    The Mousetrap

    Interior Booby Traps

    Safety Precautions

    Types of Traps

    Magazine Bomb

    Hot Light

    Armstrong’s Mixture

    Other Weapons

    Drug Raid Procedures

    Checklist for Raid Preparation

    The Raid Leader

    Tactical Considerations

    External Control Methods

    Immediate Reaction Maneuver

    L-Shaped Clearance Maneuver

    L-Shaped Sweep Maneuver

    Internal Control Methods

    The Wraparound Entry Method

    The Crisscross Entry Method

    The High-Risk Entry Method

    The Final Raid Report

    Drug Enforcement and the Patrol Officer

    Patrol Enforcement of Drug Violations

    Intelligence Gathering

    Street Observations

    Unrelated Arrests

    Open-Air Drug Markets and Police Patrol

    Open-Air Drug Markets

    Drug Dealer Profiles

    The Jamaican Drug Operation Case Study

    Patrol Response to Open-Air Markets

    The Coordinated Response

    Conducting Area and Vehicle Searches

    Interdicting Drugs in Transit

    Major Transportation Routes

    Identifying Drug Couriers

    Observing the Behavior of Drug Couriers

    Investigative Stops Using Drug Courier Profiles

    Profiling: The Legal Environment

    Clandestine Laboratories

    Safety Considerations

    Identifying Laboratory Operations

    Investigation Techniques

    Seizure and Forfeiture

    Health and Safety Regulations

    Practical Drug Enforcement

    Chemicals Found in Laboratories

    Hazardous Chemicals

    Conducting a Laboratory Raid

    Contamination Prevention and Decontamination

    Controlling Precursor Chemicals

    Pharmaceutical Diversion

    Drug Control Legislation

    Drug Types and Regulations

    Diversion Tactics

    Physician Investigations

    Doctors Who Divert Drugs

    Nurses Who Divert Drugs

    Drug Theft

    Substituting Drugs

    Undercover “Patients”

    Medical License Control

    Prescription Clinics

    Stress and Pain Clinics

    Pharmacy Investigations

    Prescription Forgeries

    Punishment of Violators

    Professional Patients (the “Scammer)

    The Fat Lady Scam

    The Breast Cancer Scam

    The Toothache Scam

    The Altered Scrip Scam

    The Phantom Refill Scam

    The Drug Audit

    Problems in Diversion Investigations

    Special Enforcement Operations

    Marijuana Cultivation

    Growing Marijuana

    Commercial Grade


    Indoor Growing Operations



    Evidence of Marijuana Cultivation

    Domestic Eradication

    Smuggling Investigations

    Air Smuggling

    Aircrafts for Smuggling

    Aircraft Data Plates

    Search of a Typical Light Plane

    Search of Commercial Aircraft

    The Pilots

    Ground Smuggling

    Search of a Typical Automobile

    Reverse Sting Operations

    Planning the Reverse Sting

    Manpower Considerations

    Conducting the Sting

    Legal Considerations in Drug Enforcement Operations

    Surreptitious Monitoring of Suspect’s Conversations

    Types of Surreptitiously Monitored Statements

    Fourth Amendment Challenges

    Fifth Amendment Challenges

    Sixth Amendment Challenges

    Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel in Police Car and in Interrogation Room Monitoring Scenarios

    Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel in Jail Monitoring Scenarios

    The Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel in the “Unrelated Charge”

    Monitoring of Suspects in Sixth Amendment Situations: “Elicitation” vs. “Listening Post”

    Summary of Sixth Amendment

    Monitoring under Federal and State Statutes

    Federal Law: The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act

    State law


    Sorrels v. United States

    Sherman v. United States


    Practical Drug Enforcement

    United States v. Russell

    Hampton v. United States

    Jacobson v. United States


    Definition of “Predisposition”

    Factors in Predisposition

    Possession with Intent to Distribute Drugs


    Actual Possession

    Constructive Possession

    Joint Possession

    Lookouts, Brokers, and Other Participants

    Possession with Intent to Distribute





    Large Amounts of Cash


    Addiction of the Possessor

    Presence of Paraphernalia


    Association with Known Dealers, Gang Membership

    Searching and Seizing Drug Evidence

    Searching the Suspect’s Premises

    Searching the Suspect’s Vehicle

    The Front-End

    The Interior

    The Rear Area

    The Underside

    Searching Pickup Trucks and Work Vehicles

    Other Vehicles

    Consent Searches

    Dwelling Searches

    Handling Drug Evidence

    Counting and Weighing Evidence

    Sealing and Labeling Evidence

    Suggested Reading

    Appendix I: Drug Scheduling

    Appendix II

    Appendix III: Code of Federal Regulations: Section 1310.02 — Substances Covered

    About the Series

    Practical Aspects of Criminal and Forensic Investigations

    Learn more…

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    LAW / Criminal Law / General
    LAW / Forensic Science
    SOCIAL SCIENCE / Criminology