Practical Forensic Digital Imaging: Applications and Techniques, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Practical Forensic Digital Imaging

Applications and Techniques, 1st Edition

By Patrick Jones

CRC Press

402 pages | 541 Color Illus.

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Description

Well-documented scenes can prove to be invaluable pieces of evidence at trial, and the ability to take compelling photographs is a critical skill for forensic scientists and investigators. Practical Forensic Digital Imaging: Applications and Techniques is an up-to-date and thorough treatment of digital imaging in the forensic sciences. Balancing practical considerations with scientific and standards-based requirements, the book’s clear, concise presentation illustrates the essentials of digital imaging required by professionals in the field.

Enhanced with crisp color photos, the book covers a host of critical topics, including:

  • The fundamentals of photographing crime scenes
  • The history of photography and the transition to digital imaging
  • Digital camera hardware and photographic techniques
  • Light, filters, and macro/micro imaging
  • Lay, professional, and expert witnesses, and the implications of Frye and Daubert
  • Enhancement of images and digital panoramic camera scanning
  • Storage of digital media
  • Ultraviolet and infrared imaging
  • Digital photo imaging microscopes
  • Covering the full range of scenarios that forensic professionals encounter, the author includes special sections dedicated to photography involving footwear and tire impressions, vehicles, death and morgue scenes, and taphonomic and entomological imaging, as well as fingerprints, burglaries, fire and arson, sex offenses, blood, and trace evidence and microscopy. The techniques in this volume enable photographers to capture the images that will not only tell the story, but will also stand up in court.

    Watch Patrick Jones in his laboratory on the CRC Press YouTube channel.

    Reviews

    I can honestly say that this is not just another forensic sciences book! Patrick’s diverse background, his experiences in the field and the classroom have been translated into a work that not only gets the essential information into the hands of the reader, it does so in a way that readers will find refreshing and intuitive. The book and its sections balance practical considerations with scientific and standards based requirements. The coverage of the topics in each section are clear and concise, and the breadth of coverage of the book is inclusive of what one needs to know about the fundamentals of digital imaging, as it relates to forensics.

    —Dr. Marcus K. Rogers, Professor/University Faculty Scholar, Fellow of CERIAS, Director - Cyber Forensics Program, Purdue University, from the Foreword

    " … a ‘‘How To’’ text, simplistic in nature yet thorough in covering highly technical material. … Check it out. You will not regret it."

    Journal of Forensic Sciences

    Table of Contents

    Documentation

    Digital Imaging

    Forensic Digital Imaging

    The Transition from 35-mm Film to Digital Imaging

    Introduction

    4 × 5 Sheet Film Cameras

    The 120 Roll Film Cameras

    The 35-mm SLR

    Other Camera Types

    The Snapshot Camera

    The Polaroid Camera

    The Disposable or Single-Use Camera

    Film

    Proper Evidentiary Handling and Storage of Film

    Digital Camera Hardware

    The Digital Point-and-Shoot Camera

    The Digital Camera Body

    The Menu

    Image Numbering

    The Lenses

    Aperture

    Focusing the SLR Camera

    Aperture Preview

    Shutter

    Exposure

    Remote Shutter Release

    Resolution

    ASA, DIN, and ISO

    Hyperfocal Distance

    Digital Imaging

    Introduction

    Money

    Protection

    Cases

    Camera Strap

    The Ultraviolet Filter

    The Camera

    Flash or Strobe

    Automatic versus Manual

    Settings

    Shutter

    Slave

    The "Normal" Lens

    The Telephoto Lens

    The Wide-Angle Lens

    The Macro Lens

    Lighting with the Macro Lens

    Using the Flash on Your Camera

    The On-and-Off Switch

    Turn the Camera Upside Down

    List Photo Images

    The 90-Degree Rule

    Perspective Images

    The Scale

    Exculpatory Evidence

    Extreme Conditions

    18% Gray Card

    Light

    Introduction

    Ambient Light

    Color Temperature

    Color Rendering Index

    Flash/Strobe

    Direct Flash

    Indirect Flash

    Fill Light

    Subtractive Light

    Additive Light

    Ambient or Available Light

    Painting with Light

    Ring Light

    Diffusing Your On-Camera Flash with Tissue

    Other Lighting Equipment

    Snoot

    Barn Doors

    Umbrella

    Filters

    Introduction

    Polarizing Filter

    Band-Pass and Band-Block Filters

    Filter Factors

    Color-Compensating Filters

    Kodak Light-Balancing Filters

    Conversion Filters for Color Films

    Stacking Filters

    Neutral-Density Filters

    Infrared and Ultraviolet Filters

    Macro/Micro Imaging

    Introduction

    Photo Image Evidence at Degrees to the Object

    Bench Imaging

    Backgrounds

    Handguns

    The Scale

    Studio in a Box

    The Light Box

    Rope Caulk

    Helping Hands

    The Tripod

    Law

    The Lay Witness

    The Professional Witness

    The Expert Witness

    The Nature of Law

    Miranda Warnings

    Types of Witnesses

    The Lay Witness

    The Professional Witness

    The Expert Witness

    Qualifying an Expert Witness

    General

    Practice

    Certification

    Membership in Forensic Organizations

    Studies and Continuing Education

    Teaching of Forensic Science

    Lectures

    Publications

    Research

    Court Experience

    Reports

    Changes

    Daubert

    Frye

    Enhancement of Images

    Introduction

    Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology

    History

    The Mission Statement of SWGIT

    Admissibility of Digital Images

    "Doctored" Images

    Cover Letter, Richard W. Vorder Bruegge Former SWGIT Chair

    Photo Image Enhancement Log

    Photoshop

    ACDSee Pro

    Enhancing a Latent Fingerprint

    Latent Lift

    Bare Footprint Developed with Ninhydrin

    Footwear and Tire Impressions

    Introduction

    Casting

    Equipment

    Footwear

    Tire Impressions

    Digital Panoramic Camera Scanning

    Scene Scanning

    The System

    Photogrammetry

    The Scene

    Panorama Imaging: Ultraviolet/Infrared

    Surveillance

    Preventive Measures

    Death Investigation

    Introduction

    The Coroner or Medical Examiner

    Official Photos of the Scene

    The Scene

    Overall or Establishing Photos

    Perspective Photos

    Unexpected Objects and Evidence

    Types of Images Taken during a Death Investigation

    Cases

    Morgue Photo Imaging

    Introduction

    At the Scene

    Universal Precautions

    At the Morgue

    Sequencing

    Lighting

    The Body

    ID Photo Image

    Scales

    Hands

    Wounds

    Lividity

    Scars, Marks, and Tattoos

    Fingerprints

    Clothing

    Taphonomic and Entomological Imaging

    Introduction

    The Scene

    The Body

    Insects

    Maggot Mass and Maggot Migration

    Containers

    Vehicles

    Water Recovery

    Bones

    The Autopsy

    Auto Process

    Introduction

    Exterior

    Interior

    Compartments and Hidey-Holes

    Trunk and Engine

    Fingerprints

    Latent Prints

    General Rules

    Fingerprints on Glass

    Fingerprints on Curved Glass

    Feathers

    Prints on Pills and Capsules

    Prints on Stainless Steel

    Prints on Toilet Seats

    Burglary

    Introduction

    Exterior

    Interior

    Alarm

    Locks

    Items of Interest

    Storage of Digital Media

    The Media

    Storage

    Fire and Arson Scene

    Introduction

    The Scene

    Lighting

    Flash

    Marking Areas

    Point of Origin

    Artifacts

    Crowd

    Digital Imaging

    Sex Offenses

    Introduction

    Dispatch

    The Scene

    Victim at the Morgue

    Victim at the Hospital

    Meeting the Victim

    Photo Imaging the Victim

    Injuries

    Bruising

    Clothing

    Children

    Trace Evidence and Microscopy

    Introduction

    Images through a Microscope

    Microscope Camera

    The Nikon Microphot

    Modification

    Blood

    Introduction

    Luminol

    Blowback: Blood in Gun Barrel

    Ultraviolet and Infrared Imaging

    Introduction

    UV Light Sources

    Body Fluids

    Insects

    Tattoos

    Infrared Light

    Fuji IS Pro UVIR Camera

    Filters for Use with the Fuji IS Pro Camera

    Other Considerations

    Digital Photo Imaging Microscope

    VHX-1000 and Forensic Inspection

    Handheld Integration

    Lenses

    Multiangle Stand

    High-Resolution Imaging

    High Dynamic Range

    Documentation and Measurement Tools

    3D Composition and Measurement

    SWGIT

    Introduction

    Disclaimer

    Bibliography

    Appendix A: Glossary

    Appendix B: Photo I.D. Card

    Index

    About the Author/Editor

    Patrick Jones is the Forensic Science Laboratory director at Purdue University. In addition to managing two laboratories, he teaches Crime Scene Investigation, Introduction to Forensic Science, Criminalistics Lab, and Advanced Criminalistics Lab. Mr. Jones has more than 34 years of experience in law enforcement, forensics investigation, security, and training. As a Crime Scene Investigator (CSI), he has worked on the John Wayne Gacy case, the Larry Eyler case (both serial killers) and the Ed Ling case among many others. He lectures and presents these cases for students and interested groups. Patrick Jones is also currently a White County Indiana Deputy Coroner and is an Indiana State Certified Medicolegal Death Investigator.

    About the Series

    Practical Aspects of Criminal and Forensic Investigations

    Learn more…

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    LAW041000
    LAW / Forensic Science