3rd Edition

Practical Guide to ICP-MS A Tutorial for Beginners, Third Edition

By Robert Thomas Copyright 2013
    446 Pages 168 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Written by a field insider with over 20 years experience in product development, application support, and field marketing for an ICP-MS manufacturer, the third edition of Practical Guide to ICP-MS: A Tutorial for Beginners provides an updated reference that was written specifically with the novice in mind. It presents a compelling story about ICP-MS and what it has to offer, showing this powerful ultra trace-element technique in the way it was intended—a practical solution to real-world problems.

    New to the third edition:

    • New chapter: Emerging ICP-MS Application Areas – covers the three most rapidly growing areas: analysis of flue gas desulfurization wastewaters, fully automated analysis of seawater samples using online chemistry procedures, and characterization of engineered nanoparticles
    • Discussion of all the new technology commercialized since the second edition.
    • An updated glossary of terms with more than 100 new entries
    • Examination of nonstandard sampling accessories, which are important for enhancing the practical capabilities of ICP-MS
    • Insight into additional applications in the environmental, clinical/biomedical, and food chemistry fields as well as new directives from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) on determining impurities in pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements using Chapters <232>, <233> and <2232>
    • Description of the most important analytical factors for selecting an ICP-MS system, taking into consideration more recent application demands

    This reference describes the principles and application benefits of ICP-MS in a clear manner for laboratory managers, analytical chemists, and technicians who have limited knowledge of the technique. In addition, it offers much-needed guidance on how best to evaluate capabilities and compare with other trace element techniques when looking to purchase commercial ICP-MS instrumentation.

    An Overview of ICP-MS
    Principles of Operation

    Principles of Ion Formation
    Ion Formation
    Natural Isotopes

    Sample Introduction
    Aerosol Generation
    Droplet Selection
    Spray Chambers

    Plasma Source
    The Plasma Torch
    Formation of an ICP Discharge
    The Function of the RF Generator
    Ionization of the Sample

    Interface Region
    Capacitive Coupling
    Ion Kinetic Energy
    Benefits of a Well-Designed Interface

    Ion-Focusing System
    Role of the Ion Optics
    Dynamics of Ion Flow
    Commercial Ion Optic Designs

    Mass Analyzers: Quadrupole Technology
    Quadrupole Technology
    Basic Principles of Operation
    Quadrupole Performance Criteria

    Mass Analyzers: Double-Focusing Magnetic Sector Technology
    Magnetic Sector Mass Spectroscopy: A Historical Perspective
    Use of Magnetic Sector Technology for ICP-MS
    Principles of Operation of Magnetic Sector Technology
    Resolving Power
    Other Benefits of Magnetic Sector Instruments
    Summing Up

    Mass Analyzers: Time-of-Flight Technology
    Basic Principles of Time-of-Flight (TOF) Technology
    Commercial Designs
    Differences between Orthogonal and On-Axis TOF
    Benefits of TOF Technology for ICP-MS

    Mass Analyzers: Collision/Reaction Cell and Interface Technology
    Basic Principles of Collision/Reaction Cells
    Different Collision/Reaction Cell Approaches
    The Collision/Reaction Interface
    Using Reaction Mechanisms in a Collision Cell
    The "Universal" Cell
    Detection Limit Comparison

    Ion Detectors
    Channel Electron Multiplier
    Faraday Cup
    Discrete Dynode Electron Multiplier
    Extending the Dynamic Range
    Extending the Dynamic Range Using Pulse-Only Mode

    Peak Measurement Protocol
    Measurement Variables
    Measurement Protocol
    Optimization of Measurement Protocol
    Multielement Data Quality Objectives

    Methods of Quantitation
    Quantitative Analysis
    Semiquantitative Analysis
    Isotope Dilution
    Isotope Ratios
    Internal Standardization

    Review of Interferences
    Spectral Interferences
    Matrix Interferences

    Sample Preparation
    Collecting the Sample
    Preparing the Sample
    Grinding the Sample
    Sample Dissolution Methods
    Choice of Reagents and Standards
    Vessels, Containers, and Sample Preparation Equipment
    The Environment
    The Analyst
    Instrument and Methodology

    Routine Maintenance
    Sample Introduction System
    Interface Region
    Ion Optics
    Roughing Pumps
    Air Filters
    Other Components to Be Periodically Checked
    Final Thoughts on Routine Maintenance

    Alternative Sample Introduction Techniques
    Laser Ablation
    Flow Injection Analysis
    Electrothermal Vaporization
    Chilled Spray Chambers and Desolvation Devices
    Direct Injection Nebulizers (DIN)
    Enhanced Productivity Sampling Systems

    Coupling ICP-MS with Chromatographic Techniques for Trace Element Speciation
    HPLC Coupled with ICP-MS
    Chromatographic Separation Requirements
    Sample Introduction Requirements
    Optimization of ICP-MS Parameters

    Common ICP-MS Applications
    Other Applications

    Emerging ICP-MS Application Areas
    The Analysis of Power Plant Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewaters (FGDW)
    Multielement Analysis of Seawater Using Automated Inline Chemistry Procedures
    The Characterization of Nanoparticles by ICP-MS
    Field Flow Fractionation (FFF) Coupled with ICP-MS

    Comparing ICP-MS with Other Atomic Spectroscopic Techniques
    Flame Atomic Absorption
    Electrothermal Atomization (ETA)
    Radial-View ICP Optical Emission
    Axial-View ICP Optical Emission
    Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    How to Select an ICP Mass Spectrometer: Some Important Analytical Considerations
    Evaluation Objectives
    Financial Considerations
    The Evaluation Process: A Summary

    Final Thoughts

    Appendix: Useful Contact Information
    Glossary of ICP-MS Terms


    Robert J. Thomas, GRIC, FRSC is principal of Scientific Solutions, a consulting company based in Gaithersburg, Maryland, that serves the application, training, and technical writing needs of the trace element analysis user community. He has worked in the field of atomic spectroscopy (AS) for almost 40 years, with over 20 years’ experience in ICP-MS applications, product development, and sales and marketing support at Perkin Elmer Instruments, Inc. He has written more than 80 technical publications covering a wide variety of atomic spectroscopic subject matter, from the fundamental principles of the technique, to articles solving real-world application problems with AA, ICP-OES, and ICP-MS analytical instrumentation.

    Praise for the First Edition

    "Any new user of ICP-MS or anyone contemplating entering the field will find the Practical Guide to ICP-MS an essential first step. This book demystifies ICP-MS and shows readers just how accessible a technique it really is. … [It] is written clearly and is well organized. … As a practitioner of ICP-MS for more than 20 years, I highly recommend this book as a primer to students, new users, laboratory managers, and users of ICP-MS data. The price of the book is well worth investing for Chapter 20 alone, which deals with the selection criteria for instrument purchase. More-experienced users and teachers will find that this book is a useful source of information on the current state of ICP-MS and its place in analytical atomic spectrometry."
    Spectroscopy Magazine

    "This book will be particularly useful to students and analytical chemists who are about to use an ICP-MS, and also those in management who might have a basic understanding of atomic spectroscopic techniques but not necessarily ICP-MS. … [The author] hoped the book might find a place on the analyst's desk or by the instrument and would be well used. Indeed, this is where my copy will probably be found."
    The Analyst

    "… a valuable introduction to the subject for anyone interested in ICP-MS. … [a] highly informative book … . "
    Today's Chemist at Work

    "…[this book] highlights everything from basic component descriptions and features to guidelines describing where and when…ICP-MS is most appropriately employed….I look forward to seeing this book used in many training programs, classrooms, and analysis laboratories."
    —Ramon M. Barnes, Director, University Research Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst