700 Pages 473 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    700 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Continuing in the steps of its predecessors, the fourth edition of Practical Holography provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date resource available. Focused on practical techniques in holography at all levels, it avoids any unnecessary mathematical theory.

    Features of the Fourth Edition

    • Highlights new information on color holograms, sensitive materials, and state-of-the-art processing techniques
    • Includes new chapters and revisions integrating information on digital holography
    • Adds a new appendix on the methods of non-holographic 3D imaging
    • Restores and updates the glossary of terms
    • Outlines a timeline for holography, from the beginnings of understanding the wave model for light up to the present day

    After nearly 12 years since the previous edition, this book is a vital manual and reference for holography professionals and enthusiasts. It is designed for the scientist, technologist, artist, and serious hobbyist alike, covering every aspect of the field from basic set-up to use of available instruments.


    What Is a Hologram?
    Defining the Goal
    Goal Achieved
    Experiment with Interference Fringes
    Amplitude and Phase Gratings

    Brief History of Holography

    Light Sources for Holography
    Light as an Electromagnetic Phenomenon
    Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
    Properties of Light Beams
    Atoms and Energy
    Stimulated Emission
    Three-Level Solid-State (Ruby) Laser
    Ruby Pulse Laser
    Four-Level Solid-State Laser
    Four-Level Solid-State Lasing Media
    Frequency Doubling and Tripling
    Construction of Nd:YAG (Nd:YLF)/Nd:Phosphate Glass Pulse Laser
    Four-Level Gas Lasers
    Mirrors and Windows in CW Lasers
    Helium-Neon Laser
    Laser Beam Shapers
    Ion Lasers
    Semiconductor (Diode) Lasers
    Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers
    Fiber Lasers
    Lasers for Color Holography
    Pseudowhite Laser for Holography
    Lasers and Safety
    Warning Notices
    Avoiding Accidents
    Protective Eyewear
    Pulse Laser Safety
    Laser Itself
    Further Reading

    Basic Types of Hologram
    Laser Transmission Holograms
    Replaying the Image
    Real Image
    White-Light Reflection Holograms
    Phase Holograms
    Image-Plane Holograms
    White-Light Transmission Holograms
    Other Types of Holograms
    Holographic Stereograms
    Color Holography
    Digitally Printed Holograms
    Digital Projection Holograms
    Surface Plasmon Holograms
    Embossed Holograms

    Materials, Exposure, and Processing
    Silver Halide Materials
    Silver Halide Processing
    Constituents of a Developer
    Developer Classifications
    Dichromated Gelatin
    Rendering Dichromated Gelatin Sensitive to Red Light
    Coating Plates
    Sealing the Hologram
    Color Control
    Silver Halide-Sensitized Gelatin
    Erasable Photosensitive Materials
    Photochromic Materials
    Photorefractive Crystals
    Further Reading


    Making Your First Hologram
    Basic Requirements
    Beam Expander
    Support for the Laser
    Support for the Plate
    Setting Up for the Exposure
    Setup with a Small Laser Pointer
    Alternative Setup for a Larger Laser
    Processing Solutions
    Viewing the Image
    One-Step Real Image
    Protecting and Displaying Your Hologram
    Working with Plates
    Cutting Glass
    Processing Plates
    What Went Wrong?
    Suppliers of Holographic Materials
    Further Reading

    Single-Beam Denisyuk Techniques
    Single-Beam Holograms of Unstable Subject Matter
    Building a Single-Beam Frame for a Prone Setup
    Rear-Surface Mirror System without Double Reflections
    Triangular Benches
    Spatial Filtering
    Setting Up with a Spatial Filter
    Making an Electrically Operated Shutter
    Index-Matching Fluid
    Exposing and Processing
    Getting the Exposure Right
    Multiexposure Techniques
    Transfer Principle
    Making a Reflection Master Hologram
    Making a Reflection Transfer Hologram
    Making a Transmission Master Hologram
    360° Holograms
    Further Applications of Single-Beam Holograms
    Mounting and Finishing Holograms

    Single-Beam Bypass Holograms
    Transmission Master Holograms
    Reflection Master Holograms
    Reflection Transfer Holograms
    Full-Aperture Transmission Transfer Holograms
    Rainbow Holograms
    Reflection Holograms from Transmission Masters
    Other Configurations

    Building Your Own Holographic Laboratory
    Laboratory Space
    Optical Table
    Building a Sand Table
    Building a Concrete Table
    Metal Tables
    Table Supports
    Bases for Optical Components
    Excluding Drafts
    Mounting the Laser
    Gantry for Overhead Equipment
    Draft Exclusion
    Processing Area
    Display Area

    Making Master Holograms for Transfer
    Other Types of Beamsplitter
    Illuminating the Subject
    Component Mountings
    Collimating Mirror
    How Stable Is Your Table?
    Basic Lighting for Transmission Master Holograms
    What Went Wrong?
    Backlighting and Background Illumination
    Silhouettes and Black Holes
    Supine Subjects
    Frontal Illumination
    Multiple-Exposure Techniques
    Masters for Rainbow Holograms
    Reflection Master Holograms
    Optical Fiber Systems for Holography
    Multimode Fibers
    Single-Mode Fibers
    Fiber-Optics Holography on Location
    Portable Cameras with Pulse Lasers

    Transfer Reflection Image Holograms
    Parallax in Transfer Holograms
    Reflection Transfer Holograms from Transmission Masters
    How to Deal with Weak Master Images
    Side and Underneath Beam Master Transfers
    Role of the Bragg Condition
    Two-Channel Transfer Holograms
    Holograms of Stereoscopic Pairs of Photographs
    Multichannel Images
    Pellicular Collimating Mirrors
    Contact Copying of Holograms
    Contact Copies by Scanning
    More Advanced Scanning System
    What Went Wrong?

    White-Light Transmission Transfer and Rainbow Holograms
    Full-Aperture Transfer Holograms
    Rainbow Holograms
    Geometry of a Rainbow Hologram
    Slit Width
    1D Beam Expander
    Convergent Reference Beam
    Multichannel Rainbow Holograms
    What Went Wrong?
    Edge-Lit Holograms

    Holograms Involving Focusing Optics
    Demagnifying and Magnifying
    Image Enlargement and Reduction
    Focused-Image Transmission Holograms
    Lenses for Focused-Image Holograms
    Focused-Image Reflection Holograms
    Focused-Image Rainbow Holograms
    Fourier-Transform Holograms

    Homemade Optical Elements
    Liquid-Filled Lenses
    Working with Acrylic Sheet
    One-Dimensional Collimators
    What to Do in Case of Leaks
    Other Sizes and Focal Lengths
    Calculations for Designing a Liquid-Filled Lens
    Two-Dimensional Collimating Lenses
    Measurements for a Collimating Lens
    Focusing Lenses
    Holographic Optical Elements
    Focal Length in Holographic Lenses and Mirrors
    Holographic Diffraction Gratings
    Holographic Lenses
    Holographic Mirrors and Beamsplitters
    Holographic Collimating Mirrors
    Aberrations of HOEs
    Multibeam HOEs

    Portraiture and Pulse Laser Holography
    Safety Considerations for Pulse Lasers
    Working with a Pulse Laser
    Optical Components for Pulsed Holography
    Typical Layout of Pulse Holography Studio
    Portraiture in a Pulse Studio
    Creative Lightning for Pulse Portraiture
    Pulse Laser Exposure
    Double and Multiple Pulses
    Other Pulse Subject Matter
    Processing of Pulse Laser Holograms

    Holography in Natural Colors
    Eye and Color Perception
    CIE Chromacity Diagram
    Color Transmission Holograms
    Denisyuk Holograms in Color
    Transfer Hologram Copies in Color
    Color Accuracy
    Portraiture in Color
    Color Reproduction in Digitally Printed Holograms
    Preserving the Color in Color Holograms
    Future of Color Holography
    Further Reading

    Achromatic and Pseudocolor Holograms
    Achromatic White-Light Transmission Transfer Holograms
    Dispersion Compensation
    Color Image from Dispersion-Compensated WLT Holograms
    Achromatic Angle for Transmission Masters
    Achromatic Reflection Holograms
    Pseudocolor Holograms
    Pseudocolor Single-Beam Reflection Holograms
    Pseudocolor H1-H2 Transfer Reflection Holograms
    Color Registration by Preswelling
    Color Registration by Geometry
    How to Obtain Precise Registration by Geometry
    Pseudocolor White-Light Transmission Holograms
    Obtaining Better Color Registration for WLT Hologram
    One-Step Pseudocolor WLT Holograms

    Holographic Stereograms
    Multiplexing Principle
    Making a Multiplexed Hologram
    Cylindrical (Cross) Stereograms
    Making a Cylindrical Cross Stereogram
    Conical Stereograms
    Flat Image-Plane Stereograms
    Scope of Modern Stereographic Imagery
    Geometries for Producing Original Image Sequences
    Perspective and Distortion
    Wide-Angle Distortion
    Alignment and Spacing of the Images
    Long-Base Stereograms
    Image Registration
    Computer Control of Imagery
    Making the Final Transfer
    Do-It-Yourself Stereographic Holoprinter: Basic Considerations
    Stereogram Masters from Film Transparency Sets or Digitally Projected Images
    Stereogram Masters from Photographic Prints
    Images from Liquid Crystal Display Screen as Objects for Stereogram Masters
    Mastering and Transferring for Achromatic Stereograms
    Full-Color Stereograms
    Mastering for Full-Color Stereograms (Red Laser)
    Transfer for Full-Color Stereograms
    Color Balance
    Color Accuracy: WLT or Reflection?
    Calculating Distances
    Preventing Dropouts
    Computer Image Processing
    Volume Multiplexed Holograms

    Digital Holographic Printing
    Direct Writing of Holographic Fringes
    Principles of Digital Hologram Printing
    Master-Write Digital Holographic Printing
    Direct Master-Write Digital Holographic Printing
    Direct-Write Digital Holographic Printing
    Pixel Swapping
    Digital Holographic Printer
    Virtual 3D Scene Imaging for Holographic Printing
    Real Scene Imaging for Holographic Printing
    Other Applications

    Display Techniques
    Basic Types of Hologram and Their Display
    Displaying Holograms at Home
    Window Displays
    Displays to Accompany Lectures and Presentations
    Submitting Your Holograms for Exhibitions
    Packing Your Hologram for Forwarding to an Exhibition
    Organizing an Exhibition of Holograms
    Lighting Arrangements
    Light Sources
    Installing the Exhibits
    Floor Plan
    Relevant Information
    Photography of Holograms
    Photographing Reflection Holograms
    Photographing Transmission Holograms
    Photographing Unusual Holograms
    Presenting Holograms on the Internet
    Viewpoint and Parallax
    Precautions at Exhibitions
    Using Flash at the Exhibitions

    Embossed Holograms
    Origination Requirements for Surface Relief Originals
    Artwork for Analog Originals
    Analog Origination
    Artwork for Digital Originals
    Dot Matrix
    Image Matrix Machinery
    E-Beam Lithography
    Digital Mastering with Analog Transfer
    DWDH Originals
    Combined Techniques
    Depositing the Conductive Layer on the Master
    First-Generation Master
    Electroforming of Final Shims
    Embossing Process
    Further Reading


    Holography and Measurement
    Direct Measurements Using Holography
    Principle of Holographic Interferometry
    Real-Time Interferometry
    Double-Exposure Interferometry
    Time-Average Interferometry
    Strobed Interferometry
    Visualization of Fluid Flows
    Doubled Illuminating Beams
    Camera for Holographic Interferometry
    Sandwich Holography
    Reference Mirror Rotation
    Fringe Measurement
    Speckle Interferometry
    Holographic Contouring
    Summary of Applications
    Further Reading

    Data Storage and Diffractive Elements
    Why Holographic Data Storage?
    Data Processing
    Spatial Filtering with Fourier-Transform Holograms
    Fourier-Transform Holograms: The Principles
    Image Deblurring
    Correlation Filtering
    Computer-Generated Holograms
    Applications of Fourier-Transform CGHs
    Strategies for Making CGHs
    CGHs with a Personal Computer
    Diffractive Optical Elements
    Basic Types of DOE
    Fabrication of DOEs
    Applications of DOEs
    Further Reading

    Holography in Biology and Medicine
    Dental Holography
    Histology and Pathology
    Ophthalmic Holography
    Multiplexed Holograms
    Holograms and Diagnostics

    Holographic Motion Pictures and Video
    Making the 3D Image Move
    Holographic Movies
    Electroholography: Holographic Video and Television
    Two Approaches to Holographic Video
    Three-Dimensional Scene Acquisition with Four-Wave Mixing
    Three-Dimensional Scene Acquisition with Integral Imaging
    Acquired 3D Scene Processing for Wavefront-Based Displays
    HoloDis: Display with Subwavelength Light Modulators
    MIT Scophony Displays
    NICT Display System
    SeeReal Display
    QinetiQ Display
    University of Arizona Photorefractive Polymer Display
    Zebra Imaging Holographic Motion Displays
    Zoetrope and Holographic Projections

    Other Applications of Holography
    Far-Field Holography
    Microwave Holography
    Infrared Holography
    Terahertz Holography
    Ultraviolet Holography
    X-Ray Holography
    Electron Holography
    Acoustic Holography
    Light-in-Flight Holography
    Polarization Holography
    Conoscopic Holography
    Pseudodeep Holograms
    Surface-Plasmon Holography


    Graham Saxby had a career in photography with the Royal Air Force, including seven years as an officer commanding Photographic Science Flight at the RAF Joint School of Photography. Afterwards, he joined what is now the University of Wolverhampton, teaching educational technology to trainee teachers and, later, modern optics in degree courses in applied sciences. This gave him the opportunity to indulge his enthusiasm for holography and to build his own laboratory, where he organized projects. His work in holography earned him an international reputation, and his published material has received a number of prestigious awards.

    Stanislovas Zacharovas, PhD, is director of Geola Digital uab, which is a premier provider of holographic materials, digital holographic equipment, pulsed lasers, and other related services. He earned his PhD from the Institute of Semiconductor Physics at the Lithuanian Academy of Science with a thesis on magnetic semiconductor photoconductivity. He worked in the SAT and CATV industry before joining Geola in 1998. His scientific research focuses on silver halide photographic emulsions, hologram copying, autostereoscopy, and digital holographic printing and embossed holography for security applications. He has authored and coauthored numerous papers and holds several patents.

    "This is the most comprehensive book on holography, now brought up to date. Holographers of every level will find this book useful, from those who make simple holograms at home, all the way to those working on advanced holographic systems."
    —Emanuel Istrate, University of Toronto

    "…the one-stop book for holography."
    —Professor Hiroshi Yoshikawa, Nihon University

    "This edition has been updated with the latest on amplitude and digital color holography, including up-to-date lasers, recording materials, and holographic applications. The book is recommended to beginners as well as to the experienced holographer."
    —Professor Hans I. Bjelkhagen

    "There are few books on this exciting subject that offer a wide scope of interest for the newcomer, artist, and scientific expert, but Graham with Stanislovas have achieved this with their new edition to a classic technical book. The chapter revisions and updates are very relevant to today’s technology and will provide an unparalleled guide for the hands-on practical holographer."
    —Dr. Paul Dunn, OpSec Security Ltd

    "This book is a welcome new edition updating the progression of digital holography with an in-depth examination of the holographic medium. It has appeal to both industrial specialists and students interested in the future of three-dimensional imaging and the advance of holography as a recording medium."
    —Professor Martin J. Richardson, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK

    "I’m delighted to see that a new edition will be available to benefit both beginning holographers and long-time users who want the most up-to-date reference."
    —V. Michael Bove, Jr., MIT Media Lab

    "The text is filled with drawings, pictures, and other visual supports. The reference listings are extensive, and a good glossary is also included. This is the kind of book that will be used often and will be especially useful for student projects. It belongs in all college libraries."
    Choice (Nov 2016)