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4th Edition

Practical Holography





ISBN 9781482251579
Published October 16, 2015 by CRC Press
642 Pages - 473 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Continuing in the steps of its predecessors, the fourth edition of Practical Holography provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date resource available. Focused on practical techniques in holography at all levels, it avoids any unnecessary mathematical theory.

Features of the Fourth Edition

  • Highlights new information on color holograms, sensitive materials, and state-of-the-art processing techniques
  • Includes new chapters and revisions integrating information on digital holography
  • Adds a new appendix on the methods of non-holographic 3D imaging
  • Restores and updates the glossary of terms
  • Outlines a timeline for holography, from the beginnings of understanding the wave model for light up to the present day

After nearly 12 years since the previous edition, this book is a vital manual and reference for holography professionals and enthusiasts. It is designed for the scientist, technologist, artist, and serious hobbyist alike, covering every aspect of the field from basic set-up to use of available instruments.

Table of Contents

PRINCIPLES OF HOLOGRAPHY

What Is a Hologram?
Stereoscopy
Defining the Goal
Goal Achieved
Interference
Experiment with Interference Fringes
Diffraction
Amplitude and Phase Gratings

Brief History of Holography
References

Light Sources for Holography
Light as an Electromagnetic Phenomenon
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
Oscillators
Properties of Light Beams
Atoms and Energy
Stimulated Emission
Three-Level Solid-State (Ruby) Laser
Ruby Pulse Laser
Four-Level Solid-State Laser
Four-Level Solid-State Lasing Media
Q-Switching
Frequency Doubling and Tripling
Construction of Nd:YAG (Nd:YLF)/Nd:Phosphate Glass Pulse Laser
Four-Level Gas Lasers
Mirrors and Windows in CW Lasers
Helium-Neon Laser
Laser Beam Shapers
Ion Lasers
Semiconductor (Diode) Lasers
Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers
Fiber Lasers
Lasers for Color Holography
Pseudowhite Laser for Holography
Lasers and Safety
Warning Notices
Avoiding Accidents
Protective Eyewear
Pulse Laser Safety
Laser Itself
Further Reading
References

Basic Types of Hologram
Laser Transmission Holograms
Replaying the Image
Real Image
White-Light Reflection Holograms
Phase Holograms
Image-Plane Holograms
White-Light Transmission Holograms
Other Types of Holograms
Holographic Stereograms
Color Holography
Digitally Printed Holograms
Digital Projection Holograms
Surface Plasmon Holograms
Embossed Holograms
References

Materials, Exposure, and Processing
Silver Halide Materials
Silver Halide Processing
Constituents of a Developer
Developer Classifications
Bleaches
Dichromated Gelatin
Rendering Dichromated Gelatin Sensitive to Red Light
Coating Plates
Exposing
Processing
Sealing the Hologram
Color Control
Silver Halide-Sensitized Gelatin
Photopolymers
Photoresists
Erasable Photosensitive Materials
Photothermoplastics
Photochromic Materials
Photorefractive Crystals
Further Reading
References

PRACTICAL DISPLAY HOLOGRAPHY

Making Your First Hologram
Basic Requirements
Laser
Beam Expander
Support for the Laser
Support for the Plate
Setting Up for the Exposure
Setup with a Small Laser Pointer
Alternative Setup for a Larger Laser
Processing Solutions
Exposing
Processing
Viewing the Image
One-Step Real Image
Protecting and Displaying Your Hologram
Working with Plates
Cutting Glass
Processing Plates
What Went Wrong?
Suppliers of Holographic Materials
Further Reading

Single-Beam Denisyuk Techniques
Single-Beam Holograms of Unstable Subject Matter
Building a Single-Beam Frame for a Prone Setup
Rear-Surface Mirror System without Double Reflections
Laser
Triangular Benches
Spatial Filtering
Setting Up with a Spatial Filter
Making an Electrically Operated Shutter
Safelights
Index-Matching Fluid
Exposing and Processing
Getting the Exposure Right
Multiexposure Techniques
Transfer Principle
Making a Reflection Master Hologram
Making a Reflection Transfer Hologram
Making a Transmission Master Hologram
360° Holograms
Further Applications of Single-Beam Holograms
Mounting and Finishing Holograms
Troubleshooting
Reference

Single-Beam Bypass Holograms
Transmission Master Holograms
Reflection Master Holograms
Reflection Transfer Holograms
Full-Aperture Transmission Transfer Holograms
Rainbow Holograms
Reflection Holograms from Transmission Masters
Other Configurations
References

Building Your Own Holographic Laboratory
Laboratory Space
Optical Table
Building a Sand Table
Building a Concrete Table
Metal Tables
Table Supports
Bases for Optical Components
Excluding Drafts
Mounting the Laser
Gantry for Overhead Equipment
Cantilevers
Draft Exclusion
Processing Area
Storeroom
Display Area
References

Making Master Holograms for Transfer
Beamsplitters
Other Types of Beamsplitter
Illuminating the Subject
Component Mountings
Plateholders
Collimating Mirror
How Stable Is Your Table?
Basic Lighting for Transmission Master Holograms
What Went Wrong?
Backlighting and Background Illumination
Silhouettes and Black Holes
Supine Subjects
Frontal Illumination
Multiple-Exposure Techniques
Masters for Rainbow Holograms
Reflection Master Holograms
Optical Fiber Systems for Holography
Multimode Fibers
Single-Mode Fibers
Fiber-Optics Holography on Location
Portable Cameras with Pulse Lasers
References

Transfer Reflection Image Holograms
Parallax in Transfer Holograms
Reflection Transfer Holograms from Transmission Masters
How to Deal with Weak Master Images
Side and Underneath Beam Master Transfers
Role of the Bragg Condition
Two-Channel Transfer Holograms
Holograms of Stereoscopic Pairs of Photographs
Multichannel Images
Pellicular Collimating Mirrors
Contact Copying of Holograms
Contact Copies by Scanning
More Advanced Scanning System
What Went Wrong?

White-Light Transmission Transfer and Rainbow Holograms
Full-Aperture Transfer Holograms
Rainbow Holograms
Geometry of a Rainbow Hologram
Slit Width
1D Beam Expander
Convergent Reference Beam
Multichannel Rainbow Holograms
What Went Wrong?
Edge-Lit Holograms
References

Holograms Involving Focusing Optics
Demagnifying and Magnifying
Image Enlargement and Reduction
Focused-Image Transmission Holograms
Lenses for Focused-Image Holograms
Focused-Image Reflection Holograms
Focused-Image Rainbow Holograms
Fourier-Transform Holograms
References

Homemade Optical Elements
Liquid-Filled Lenses
Working with Acrylic Sheet
One-Dimensional Collimators
What to Do in Case of Leaks
Other Sizes and Focal Lengths
Calculations for Designing a Liquid-Filled Lens
Two-Dimensional Collimating Lenses
Measurements for a Collimating Lens
Focusing Lenses
Holographic Optical Elements
Focal Length in Holographic Lenses and Mirrors
Holographic Diffraction Gratings
Holographic Lenses
Holographic Mirrors and Beamsplitters
Holographic Collimating Mirrors
Aberrations of HOEs
Multibeam HOEs
References

Portraiture and Pulse Laser Holography
Safety Considerations for Pulse Lasers
Working with a Pulse Laser
Optical Components for Pulsed Holography
Typical Layout of Pulse Holography Studio
Portraiture in a Pulse Studio
Creative Lightning for Pulse Portraiture
Pulse Laser Exposure
Double and Multiple Pulses
Other Pulse Subject Matter
Processing of Pulse Laser Holograms

Holography in Natural Colors
Eye and Color Perception
CIE Chromacity Diagram
Color Transmission Holograms
Denisyuk Holograms in Color
Transfer Hologram Copies in Color
Color Accuracy
Portraiture in Color
Color Reproduction in Digitally Printed Holograms
Preserving the Color in Color Holograms
Future of Color Holography
References
Further Reading

Achromatic and Pseudocolor Holograms
Achromatic White-Light Transmission Transfer Holograms
Dispersion Compensation
Color Image from Dispersion-Compensated WLT Holograms
Achromatic Angle for Transmission Masters
Achromatic Reflection Holograms
Pseudocolor Holograms
Pseudocolor Single-Beam Reflection Holograms
Pseudocolor H1-H2 Transfer Reflection Holograms
Color Registration by Preswelling
Color Registration by Geometry
How to Obtain Precise Registration by Geometry
Pseudocolor White-Light Transmission Holograms
Obtaining Better Color Registration for WLT Hologram
One-Step Pseudocolor WLT Holograms
References

Holographic Stereograms
Multiplexing Principle
Making a Multiplexed Hologram
Cylindrical (Cross) Stereograms
Making a Cylindrical Cross Stereogram
Conical Stereograms
Flat Image-Plane Stereograms
Scope of Modern Stereographic Imagery
Geometries for Producing Original Image Sequences
Perspective and Distortion
Wide-Angle Distortion
Alignment and Spacing of the Images
Long-Base Stereograms
Image Registration
Computer Control of Imagery
Making the Final Transfer
Do-It-Yourself Stereographic Holoprinter: Basic Considerations
Stereogram Masters from Film Transparency Sets or Digitally Projected Images
Stereogram Masters from Photographic Prints
Images from Liquid Crystal Display Screen as Objects for Stereogram Masters
Mastering and Transferring for Achromatic Stereograms
Full-Color Stereograms
Mastering for Full-Color Stereograms (Red Laser)
Transfer for Full-Color Stereograms
Color Balance
Color Accuracy: WLT or Reflection?
Calculating Distances
Preventing Dropouts
Computer Image Processing
Volume Multiplexed Holograms
References

Digital Holographic Printing
Direct Writing of Holographic Fringes
Principles of Digital Hologram Printing
Master-Write Digital Holographic Printing
Direct Master-Write Digital Holographic Printing
Direct-Write Digital Holographic Printing
Pixel Swapping
Digital Holographic Printer
Virtual 3D Scene Imaging for Holographic Printing
Real Scene Imaging for Holographic Printing
Other Applications
References

Display Techniques
Basic Types of Hologram and Their Display
Displaying Holograms at Home
Window Displays
Displays to Accompany Lectures and Presentations
Submitting Your Holograms for Exhibitions
Packing Your Hologram for Forwarding to an Exhibition
Organizing an Exhibition of Holograms
Lighting Arrangements
Light Sources
Installing the Exhibits
Floor Plan
Relevant Information
Environment
Photography of Holograms
Photographing Reflection Holograms
Photographing Transmission Holograms
Photographing Unusual Holograms
Presenting Holograms on the Internet
Viewpoint and Parallax
Precautions at Exhibitions
Using Flash at the Exhibitions
Copyright
References

Embossed Holograms
Origination Requirements for Surface Relief Originals
Artwork for Analog Originals
Analog Origination
Artwork for Digital Originals
Dot Matrix
Image Matrix Machinery
E-Beam Lithography
Digital Mastering with Analog Transfer
DWDH Originals
Combined Techniques
Depositing the Conductive Layer on the Master
First-Generation Master
Electroforming of Final Shims
Embossing Process
Further Reading
References

APPLIED HOLOGRAPHY

Holography and Measurement
Direct Measurements Using Holography
Principle of Holographic Interferometry
Real-Time Interferometry
Double-Exposure Interferometry
Time-Average Interferometry
Strobed Interferometry
Visualization of Fluid Flows
Doubled Illuminating Beams
Camera for Holographic Interferometry
Sandwich Holography
Reference Mirror Rotation
Fringe Measurement
Speckle Interferometry
Holographic Contouring
Summary of Applications
Further Reading
References

Data Storage and Diffractive Elements
Why Holographic Data Storage?
Data Processing
Spatial Filtering with Fourier-Transform Holograms
Fourier-Transform Holograms: The Principles
Image Deblurring
Correlation Filtering
Computer-Generated Holograms
Applications of Fourier-Transform CGHs
Strategies for Making CGHs
CGHs with a Personal Computer
Diffractive Optical Elements
Basic Types of DOE
Fabrication of DOEs
Applications of DOEs
Further Reading
References

Holography in Biology and Medicine
Dental Holography
Histology and Pathology
Ophthalmic Holography
Multiplexed Holograms
Holograms and Diagnostics
References

Holographic Motion Pictures and Video
Making the 3D Image Move
Holographic Movies
Electroholography: Holographic Video and Television
Two Approaches to Holographic Video
Three-Dimensional Scene Acquisition with Four-Wave Mixing
Three-Dimensional Scene Acquisition with Integral Imaging
Acquired 3D Scene Processing for Wavefront-Based Displays
HoloDis: Display with Subwavelength Light Modulators
MIT Scophony Displays
NICT Display System
SeeReal Display
QinetiQ Display
University of Arizona Photorefractive Polymer Display
Zebra Imaging Holographic Motion Displays
Zoetrope and Holographic Projections
References

Other Applications of Holography
Far-Field Holography
Holomicrography
Microwave Holography
Infrared Holography
Terahertz Holography
Ultraviolet Holography
X-Ray Holography
Electron Holography
Acoustic Holography
Light-in-Flight Holography
Polarization Holography
Conoscopic Holography
Pseudodeep Holograms
Surface-Plasmon Holography
Conclusion
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Graham Saxby had a career in photography with the Royal Air Force, including seven years as an officer commanding Photographic Science Flight at the RAF Joint School of Photography. Afterwards, he joined what is now the University of Wolverhampton, teaching educational technology to trainee teachers and, later, modern optics in degree courses in applied sciences. This gave him the opportunity to indulge his enthusiasm for holography and to build his own laboratory, where he organized projects. His work in holography earned him an international reputation, and his published material has received a number of prestigious awards.

Stanislovas Zacharovas, PhD, is director of Geola Digital uab, which is a premier provider of holographic materials, digital holographic equipment, pulsed lasers, and other related services. He earned his PhD from the Institute of Semiconductor Physics at the Lithuanian Academy of Science with a thesis on magnetic semiconductor photoconductivity. He worked in the SAT and CATV industry before joining Geola in 1998. His scientific research focuses on silver halide photographic emulsions, hologram copying, autostereoscopy, and digital holographic printing and embossed holography for security applications. He has authored and coauthored numerous papers and holds several patents.

Reviews

"This is the most comprehensive book on holography, now brought up to date. Holographers of every level will find this book useful, from those who make simple holograms at home, all the way to those working on advanced holographic systems."
—Emanuel Istrate, University of Toronto

"…the one-stop book for holography."
—Professor Hiroshi Yoshikawa, Nihon University

"This edition has been updated with the latest on amplitude and digital color holography, including up-to-date lasers, recording materials, and holographic applications. The book is recommended to beginners as well as to the experienced holographer."
—Professor Hans I. Bjelkhagen

"There are few books on this exciting subject that offer a wide scope of interest for the newcomer, artist, and scientific expert, but Graham with Stanislovas have achieved this with their new edition to a classic technical book. The chapter revisions and updates are very relevant to today’s technology and will provide an unparalleled guide for the hands-on practical holographer."
—Dr. Paul Dunn, OpSec Security Ltd

"This book is a welcome new edition updating the progression of digital holography with an in-depth examination of the holographic medium. It has appeal to both industrial specialists and students interested in the future of three-dimensional imaging and the advance of holography as a recording medium."
—Professor Martin J. Richardson, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK

"I’m delighted to see that a new edition will be available to benefit both beginning holographers and long-time users who want the most up-to-date reference."
—V. Michael Bove, Jr., MIT Media Lab

"The text is filled with drawings, pictures, and other visual supports. The reference listings are extensive, and a good glossary is also included. This is the kind of book that will be used often and will be especially useful for student projects. It belongs in all college libraries."
Choice (Nov 2016)