2nd Edition

Practical Manual of Groundwater Microbiology

By D. Roy Cullimore Copyright 2007
    398 Pages 79 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Although microorganisms can be found virtually anywhere on our planet, from clouds to soils to oceans, they are often poorly understood when examining issues related to groundwater and water wells. Focusing on the impact of microorganisms on groundwater and water wells, Practical Manual of Groundwater Microbiology, Second Edition presents over 75% new material to offer a comprehensive, up-to-date guide on the subject.

    The first eight chapters provide an overview of microbiology and its importance in groundwaters, exploring natural filters that develop around wells, various bacteria, molds, viruses, sampling procedures, biofouling, biofilms, sequestration strategies, rehabilitation/regeneration practices, and flooding risks. The book also contains a chapter that functions as a self-contained guide, with 79 descriptive illustrations of important concepts integral to the understanding of microbes in groundwater. Numerous appendices, some new to this edition, supply detailed information on more specialized topics, such as microbiological test methods, water sample protocols, regulatory considerations concerning the use of phosphorus in wells, and the application of vegetable oil to lubricate pumps.

    Chronicling the significant progress made in the field since the publication of its predecessor, this edition provides practical approaches for evaluating the effects of microorganisms and their activities on groundwater and water wells.

    Water Wells have Natural Filters: The Challenge
    Feeding the Natural Filters
    Other Factors Associated with the Natural Filter
    Maintaining the Natural Filters around Water Wells
    Failure of the Natural Filters and the Symptoms in the Water Well
    Microbes in Water Wells: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
    What Are Microbes?
    Where Are Microbes?
    Sterility, Health, and Microbes
    Bacterial Groups of Significance in Water Wells
    Coliform Bacteria
    Iron-Related Bacteria
    Slime-Forming Bacteria
    Total Bacteria
    Microorganisms in Water Wells
    Role of the Molds (Fungi) in Water Wells
    Role of Protozoa in Water Wells
    Role of Viruses in Water Wells
    Acute Gastrointestinal Illness of Unknown Etiology
    Sampling Procedures
    Sampling Water Wells
    Single Sampling Procedure for a Water Well
    Multiple Sampling from the Water Well
    Zones of Interrogation Projections (ZIP) Testing
    Routine Sampling
    Symptoms of Failure: Early Warnings and Eventual Catastrophes
    Sustainable Wells
    Historical Records
    Biological Assay Data
    Biofouling: The Impact of Biofilms on Specific Capacity
    Significance of Drawdown Changes
    Oil-Lubricated Pumps: The Risks
    Considerations in Deciding upon a Treatment Strategy
    Remedies from a Drop to a Drum
    Preventative Maintenance (PM) Servicing
    Water Wells That Are Failing without Routine PM or Regeneration
    Regeneration from the Edge of Catastrophe
    Types of Chemicals Employed in Regeneration
    Chemical Selection for Use in the Regeneration of Wells
    Sequestration Strategies
    Use of Heat
    Chemical Blend Selection
    Regeneration Practices
    Spheres of Influence: The Coming and the Going
    Risks from Flooding Causing Compromise to the Wells
    Groundwater under the Direct Influence of Surface Water
    Art of Well Development
    Illustrated Guide for Groundwater Microbiology
    Natural Filters around Water Wells
    Changes in the Position of the Biomass around a Well
    Growth of Biomass and Impact on Well Characteristics
    Groundwater Flow through Four Biofouling Water Wells
    Diagrammatic Presentation of Bacterial Cell
    Cross Section of Attached Biomass
    Major Forms of Biofouling in Water Wells
    Forms of Coliform Bacteria
    Forms of Iron-Related Bacteria
    Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria
    Fungi (Molds)
    Pathogenic (Health-Risk) Protozoa
    Size of Viruses and Bacteria
    Growing Bacteria
    Agar Dip-Paddle Technique
    Slope BART Culture Technique
    BART Test Method
    Rodina Test for IRB
    Cholodny Test for IRB
    Grainge and Lund Test for IRB
    George Alford Quick and Dirty Test for IRB
    Staining Methods for IRB
    Agar Spreadplate Enumeration Method for Bacteria
    Bacterial Colony Forms Growing on Agar Plates
    ATP Test Method for Detecting Bacterial Activity
    Comparison of ATP to Time Lapse Using BART Testers
    Theoretical Functioning of the BART Tester
    Types of BART Testers in Common Use
    Protocol for Filling BART Field Tester
    Common Sites for Early BART Reactions
    IRB-BART Reaction Patterns
    SRB-BART Reaction Patterns
    SLYM-BART Reaction Patterns
    HAB-BART Reaction Patterns
    DN-BART Reaction Patterns
    N-BART Reaction Patterns
    ALGE-BART Reaction Patterns
    APB-BART Reaction Patterns
    Relationship of Time Lapse to Population
    ORP Relationship to IRB-BART Reactions
    ORP Relationship to SRB-BART Reactions
    Effects of Sampling during Pumping on Biomass Characteristics
    Location of Biomass Shifting during Plugging of a Well
    Primary Effect of Water Well Treatments
    Mechanisms for Bacteriologically Influenced Infestation of Water Wells
    Zones of Interrogation Projection I
    Zones of Interrogation Projection II
    Zones of Interrogation Projection III
    Relationship between Bacterial Activity and Specific Capacity in Biofouling Water Wells
    Movement of the Redox Front around a Well Suffering Microbiologically Influenced Plugging
    Treatment Impacts on a Biofouling Water Well
    Video-Camera Logging of Biofouled Water Wells
    Methane (Natural Gas) Eruptions in Water Wells
    Harmonic Pulsing Activities in the Plugging Biomass
    Metal Bioaccumulation around an Active Water Well
    Impact of Treatments on the Sequential Releases of Metals from the Biomass
    Risks from Applying Phosphorus Compounds as a Part of Treatment Strategies for Biofouled Water Wells
    Maturation of Biofouling Water Wells, Impacts on Specific Capacity, and Bacterial Activity
    Control Strategies for the Removal of Biomass
    Comparison of Well Regeneration with Preventative Maintenance (Servicing)
    Shock, Disrupt, and Disperse Phases of Water Well Regeneration
    Effects of Distortions in the Location of Biomass on the Efficiency of Treatments
    Treatment of Fractured Hard Rock Wells
    Impact of Treatment on the Biomass Involved in Biofouling
    Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Water Wells
    Effect of the Growth of Various Microbial Communities on the Function of Water Wells
    Sequential Risk Analysis for a Test Pumping of a Well
    Biofouling of Relief Wells in Earth-Filled Dam Structures Used to Create Water Reservoirs
    Biofouling of Horizontal Wells
    Impact of Flooding on Producing Water Wells
    Direct and Indirect Impacts of Water Wells Flooded by Surface Waters
    Flood Impact on a Biofouled Well
    Protection of Wells from Flooding
    Impact of Flooding on the Position of the Redox
    Front around Water Wells
    Impact of Oil and Gas Wells on Neighboring Water Wells
    Theoretical Functioning of the BART Tester
    Positioning of Biomass around Slotted Screens in Water Wells That Are Biofouling
    Treatment Sequences in Biofouled Water Well Regeneration
    Appendix A: Microbiological Test Methods
    Appendix B: Biological Activity Reaction Test (BART)
    Appendix C: Video Borehole Log
    Appendix D: Treatment Strategies
    Appendix E: Sustainability of Water Wells
    Appendix F: Interaction between Neighboring Water Wells
    Appendix G: Standard Microbiological Approaches for Groundwater Challenges, Concepts (Summary)
    Appendix H: Methods for Obtaining Water Samples for
    Microbiological Testing
    Appendix I: Conservation of the Water Sample between Collection and Testing
    Appendix J: Definition of the Influence That Ambient Water Temperatures Have on Tests
    Appendix K: Protocols to Obtain Water Samples
    Appendix L: Application of BART Testers
    Appendix M: Evaluation of Risk Potentials
    Appendix N: Regulatory Considerations Concerning Phosphorus
    Appendix O: Application of Heat as a Component in the Rehabilitation/Regeneration of Biofouled Water Wells
    Appendix P: Application of Vegetable Oil as a Substitute for Hydrocarbon-Based Oils to Lubricate Pumps
    Appendix Q: Frequently Asked Questions
    Appendix R: Glossary
    Appendix S: Well Questionnaire (First Enquiry)
    Appendix T: Further Reading


    D. Roy Cullimore

    "This second edition is a thoroughly well-written and well-presented publication which delivers exactly what it says on the cover - a practical manual on groundwater microbiology, ranging from the latest developments at the high-tech end of microbiology to rapid, rough-and-ready tests that can be performed in the field or hotel bar....a must as a library resource for all those interested in groundwater microbiology...an invaluable resource for all practictioners."

    Donald Reid, Society for General Microbiology. Feb. 2009