Pre-treatment Methods of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biofuel Production
Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel is materially obstructed by the compositional and chemical complexity of biomaterials, resulting in a challenge in using these as raw materials for the biofuel production process. This book explains various lignocellulosic biomass pre-treatment methods with emphasis on concepts, practicability, mechanisms of action, and advantages and disadvantages and potential for industrial applications. It also highlights the main challenges and suggests possible ways to make these pre-treatment technologies feasible for the biofuel industry.
- Presents different pre-treatment technologies available for lignocellulosic biomass in a concise manner.
- Covers use of different pre-treatment methods in laboratory to industrial scales.
- Includes combined pre-treatment and deep eutectic solvents methods.
- Discusses problems related to industrial adaptation and corresponding economics of different techniques.
- Explores significant fuels and chemicals derived from lignocellulosic biomass.
This book is aimed at graduate students and researchers working on biomass conversion, characterization, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, microbial enzymes, fermentation technology, and industrial biotechnology.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.2 Structure of Lignocellulosic Biomass
1.3 Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
CHAPTER 2: PHYSICAL PRETREATMENTS
2.1 Mechanical Comminution
2.2 Pyrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass
2.3 Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis (CFP)
2.4 Electron Beam Irradiation
2.5 Microwave Pretreatment
2.6 Ultrasound Pretreatment
2.7 Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Pretreatment
CHAPTER 3: PHYSICOCHEMICAL PRETREATMENTS
3.1. Steam Explosion
3.2 Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX)
3.3 Carbon Dioxide Explosion
3.4 Wet Oxidation
CHAPTER 4: CHEMICAL PRETREATMENTS
4.2 Acid Pretreatment
4.3 Alkali Pretreatment
4.4 Pretreatment with Oxidizing Agent
4.5 Organosolvation Pretreatment
4.6 Extractive Ammonia (EA) Pretreatment
4.7 Ionic Liquids (ILs) Pretreatment
4.8 Mild Reductive Catalytic Pretreatment (MRCP)
4.9 Reductive Catalytic Fractionation (RCF)
4.10 Deep Eutectic Solvents Methods (DES)
CHAPTER 5: BIOLOGICAL PRETREATMENT
5.1 Degradation of Cellulases
5.2 Degradation of Lignin and Hemicellulose
CHAPTER 6: COMBINED PRETREATMENTS
CHAPTER 7: PROBLEMS OF THE INDUSTRIAL ADAPTATION
7.7 Farm income
7.9 International Trade
CHAPTER 8: ECONOMICS OF DIFFERENT PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
8.1 Economic Studies of Biofuels
8.2 Estimates of Future Potentials for Bioenergy
8.3 New Jobs
CHAPTER 9: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
9.1 Reduction of Carbon Emissions
9.2 Improve Energy Security
9.3 Simple and Familiar
CHAPTER 10: CONCLUSIONS AND ROCMMENDATIONS
10.2 Challenges and Future Perspective