A Prehistory of North America covers the ever-evolving understanding of the prehistory of North America, from its initial colonization, through the development of complex societies, and up to contact with Europeans.
This book is the most up-to-date treatment of the prehistory of North America. In addition, it is organized by culture area in order to serve as a companion volume to “An Introduction to Native North America.” It also includes an extensive bibliography to facilitate research by both students and professionals.
Chapter 1. Introduction 1. The Study of the Past 1. North America Defined 2. The Climate of North America 1. Broad Periods in North American Prehistory 1. A Very Brief History of Archaeology in North America 2. Speculation 2. Discovery and Description 2. Chronologies and Culture Histories 2. Towards Explanation 2. New Approaches and Methods 2. Some Current Issues Chapter 2. How and When: Peopling the New World 1. Pleistocene Geography and Environment 2. Some Important Pleistocene Animals 1. Issues in Dating 1. The Origins of Native Americans 1. Where Did Paleoindians Come From? 2. Linguistic Evidence 2. Biological Evidence: Morphology 2. Biological Evidence: DNA 2. Archaeological Evidence 1. How Did Paleoindians Get Into the New World? 2. A Land Route? 3. An Ice Free Corridor? 2. A Coastal Route? 1. How Many Migrations Were There? 2. Linguistic and Genetic Clues 2. Skeletal Data 2. Archaeological Evidence 1. When Did People Arrive in the New World? 2. The Clovis First Model 3. A Very Rapid Colonization 3. A Clovis Overkill? 2. The Pre-Clovis Model 3. A Very Early Entry 3. A Later Pre-Clovis Entry 2. Evaluating the Evidence 3. Genetic Clues 3. The Evidence from Northeast Asia 4. Environmental Conditions 4. The Archaeological Evidence 3. The Archaeological Evidence from Alaska 4. The Nenana Complex 4. The Denali complex 4. The Mesa Complex 4. Discussion 3. The North American Evidence 4. Meadowcroft Rockshelter 4. Pre-Clovis Mammoth Hunting? 4. Cactus Hill 4. Topper Highlight 2.1 Pre-Clovis Poop? 4. A Few Other sites 4. The Iberian Connection 3. The South American Evidence 4. Monte Verde 4. Pedra Furada Rockshelter 4. Discussion 1 Where are We Now? Chapter 3. A Paleoindian Continent 1. The Clovis Complex 2. Environment During Clovis Times 2. Clovis Technology 2. Clovis Adaptations Highlight 3.1 Comet! A Clovis Killer? 1. Later Paleoindian Cultures 2. A Paleocoastal Tradition? 2. Paleoindians in Western North America 2. Paleoindians on the Plains 3. The Folsom Complex 3. The Midland Complex 3. The Plano Complex 3. The Cody Complex 2. Paleoindians in Eastern North America 1. The Transition to the Archaic 1. New Migrations Chapter 4. Whales and Sleds: The Arctic 1. Geography and Environment 1. A Brief History of Research 1. Major Themes in Arctic Prehistory 1. Prehistory of the Western Arctic 2. The Paleoindian Period 2. The Paleoarctic Tradition 2. The Ocean Bay Tradition 2. The Aleutian Tradition 2. The Kodiak Tradition 2. The Arctic Small Tool Tradition 2. The Norton Tradition Highlight 4.1 Cape Kruzenstern and The Old Whaling Culture 2. The Thule 1. Prehistory of the Eastern Arctic 2. The Pre-Dorset 2. Saqqaq 2. Independence I 2. Independence II 2. The Dorset Highlight 4.2. Dorset Art 2. The Thule Expansion into the Eastern Arctic Highlight 4.3 The Inuit and the Norse 1. Native Arctic Cultures at Contact 1. Further Reading Chapter 5. Salmon and Potlatches: The Northwest Coast 1. Geography and Environment 1. A Brief History of Research Highlight 5.1 Glacial Discoveries 1. Major Themes in Northwest Coast Prehistory Highlight 5.2 The Potlatch 1. The Paleoindian Period 1. The Early Holocene 2. Northwest Coast Microblade Tradition 2. The Old Cordilleran Culture 1. The Middle Holocene 1. The Developed Northwest Coast Pattern 2. The DNWCP on the North Coast 2. The DNWCP on the Central Coast 3. The Locarno Beach Phase 3. The Marpole Phase 3. The Gulf of Georgia Phase Highlight 5.3. Ozette: The Pompeii of the Northwest Coast 2. The DNWCP on the South Coast 1. Native Northwest Coast Cultures at Contact 1. Further Reading Chapter 6. Roots and Pithouses: The Plateau 1. Geography and Environment 1. A Brief History of Research Highlight 6.1 Foragers and Collectors 1. Major Themes in Plateau Prehistory 1. The Paleoindian Period Highlight 6.2 The Great Missoula Floods 1. The Archaic 2. Windust 2. Cascade Highlight 6.3. The Western Idaho Archaic Burial Complex 2. Nesikep Tradition 2. Plateau Pithouse Tradition 3. The Plateau Pithouse Tradition on the Canadian Plateau Highlight 6.4. Keatley Creek 3. The Plateau Pithouse Tradition on the Columbia Plateau 1. Native Plateau Cultures at Contact 1. Further Reading Chapter 7. Acorns and Diversity: California Highlight 7.1 Acorns: The Wheat of Ancient California 1. Geography and Environment 1. A Brief History of Research 1. Major Themes in California Prehistory 1. The Late Pleistocene 2. The Clovis Complex 2. A Paleocoastal Tradition? 1. The Pleistocene-Holocene Transition 1. The Early Holocene Highlight 7.2 The Millingstone Phenomenon 2. Northern California 2. The Central and Southern Coasts 2. The Sparsely Occupied Interior 1. The Middle Holocene 2. Acorns and Salmon in Northern California 2. Mortars and Shellmounds of the Central Coast 2. More Millingstones in Southern California Highlight 7.3 The Western Nexus 2. The Beginnings of Intensification: The Central Valley and Mountains 2. The Hot Colorado Desert 1. The Late Holocene 2. Increasing Complexity: Northern California and the Central Coast 2. Money and Chiefdoms: The Santa Barbara Region 3. The Development of Chiefdoms 2. A Takic Expansion: Coastal Southern California 2. More Acorns in the Sierra Nevada 2. Growth and Elaboration in the Central Valley 2. "Lake" Times in the Colorado Desert 1. Baja California 2. The Early Occupation of Baja California 2. Southern Baja California 2. Central Baja California 2. Northern Baja California 1. Native Californian Cultures at Contact 1. Further Reading Chapter 8. Marshes and Deserts: The Great Basin 1. Geography and Environment 1. A Brief History of Research 1. Major Themes in Great Basin Prehistory 1. The Paleoindian Period 1. The Paleoarchaic Period 1. The Archaic 2. The Early Archaic 2. The Middle Archaic Highlight 8.1. Gatecliff Shelter Highlight 8.2. Grasshoppers for Dinner Again? 2. The Late Archaic Highlight 8.3. Lovelock Cave 3. A Numic Expansion 1. The Formative: Agricultural Societies of the Great Basin 2. The Virgin Anasazi 2. The Fremont 3. Fremont Origins 3. Fremont Economy and Organization 3. What Happened to the Fremont? 1. The Mojave Desert 1. Native Great Basin Cultures at Contact 1. Further Reading Chapter 9. Pithouses and Pueblos: The Southwest 1. Geography and Environment 1. A Very Brief History of Research 1. Major Themes in Southwestern Prehistory 1. The Paleoindian Period 1. The Archaic Highlight 9.1. Mesoamerican Influences in the Southwest 2. The Western Archaic Highlight 9.2. Split Twig Figurines 2. The Northern Archaic 2. The Southern Archaic 2. The Advent of Agriculture 1. The Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi) 2. The Basketmakers 3. Basketmaker II 3. Basketmaker III 2. The Puebloans 3. Pueblo I Highlight 9.3. The Virgin Anasazi 3. Pueblo II 4. The Chaco Phenomenon Highlight 9.4. Cannibalism! Highlight 9.5. The Sinagua 3. Pueblo III 3. Pueblo IV 3. Pueblo V 1. The Mogollon 2. The Pit House Period 2. The Classic Period 2. The Postclassic Period 2. The Aggregation Period 2. The Late Period Highlight 9.6. Mimbres Highlight 9.7. Paquime and the Casas Grandes World 1. The Hohokam 2. The Early Agricultural Hohokam 2. The Pioneer Period 2. The Colonial Period 2. The Sedentary Period 2. The Classic Period 2. The Post-Classic Period and Beyond Highlight 9.8. The Salado Enigma 1. The Patayan 1. Native Southwestern Cultures at Contact 1. Further Reading Chapter 10. Following Bison: The Plains 1. Geography and Environment 1. A Brief History of Research 1. Major Themes in Plains Prehistory 1. The Paleoindian Period 1. The Archaic 2. The Northern High Plains 3. Early Archaic Highlight 10.1. Head-Smashed-In Bison Jump 3. Middle Archaic 3. Late Archaic 3. The Late Prehistoric 2. The Central and Southe