1st Edition

Preparing for Hybrid Threats to Security Collaborative Preparedness and Response

Edited By Odd Jarl Borch, Tormod Heier Copyright 2025
    320 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    320 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This book examines hybrid threats within the broader context of a security crisis in Europe.

    As geopolitical tensions increase and great power rivalries intensify, can states protect their communities? While conventional wars are fought, parallel battles take place by more subtle and non-violent means. This multi-disciplinary book examines how hybrid threats undermine political governance and social stability in liberal democracies, covering aggressors, targeted states and victimized communities. It seeks to address how aggressor states undermine liberal democracies under the threshold of conflict, and the role played by hybrid threats as aggressor states prepare for full-scale war. The chapters also explore how liberal democracies organize and interact to detect hybrid threats, arguing that, in order to increase resilience, politicians and government agencies must involve the private sector and citizens in threat-reduction policies. The analysis builds upon the latest research in the international crisis management literature.

    This book will be of interest to students of security studies, hybrid warfare, defence studies and International Relations, as well as professional practitioners.

    1. Understanding Hybrid Threats: An Introduction  
      Odd Jarl Borch and Tormod Heier  

    Part I: The Threat  

     2. Contemporary Research on Hybrid Threats: Status and Future Avenues   

    Nina M. Bjørge and Marte Høiby  

     3. Hybrid Threats as a Threat to Democracy: Soft and Smart Tactics and Three Dimensions of Democracy  

    Tanja Ellingsen  

     4. Identifying Hybrid Threats from a National Security Perspective: The Case of Chinese Hybrid Threats in Australia  

    Patrick Cullen  

    Part II: The Ukrainian Experience  

     5. Hybrid Threats in Cyberspace: What Do Russia’s Cyberspace Operations in Ukraine Tell Us?  

    Mass Soldal Lund  

     6. The Transformation of Hybrid Threats into Full-Scale War: The Case of Ukraine, 2014-2022  

    Yevhen Mahda and Viacheslav Semenenko  

     7. Countering Russia’s Hybrid War: The Orchestration of Ukraine’s National Resilience  

    Valerii Hordiichuk, Nina Andriianova and Andrii Ivashchenko  

    Part III: Response Strategies  

     8. Civic Communities or Armed Forces as First Line of Defence?  

    Tormod Heier  

     9. Municipal Preparedness Against Hybrid Threats: How Can Military Experiences Be Used?  

    Jannicke Thinn Fiskvik and Tormod Heier  

     10. Hybrid Threats and the ‘New’ Total Defence: The Case of Sweden  

    Joakim Berndtsson  

     11. Information Sharing in Complex Crises: The Case of Joint Domain-Specific Centers in Norway  

    Line Djernæs Sandbakken and Ørjan Nordhus Karlsson  

     12. Hybrid Threat Intelligence Through Virtual Networks: The Role of Network Entrepreneurs  

    Odd Jarl Borch  

    Part IV: Knowledge and Resilience  

     13. Hybrid Threats and Comprehensive Defence in Small Diverse Societies: The Case of Estonia  

    Kairi Kasearu, Tiia-Triin Truusa and Liina-Mai Tooding  

     14. Hybrid Threats and the Power of Identity: Comparing Croatia and Ukraine    

    Gordan Akrap and Maksym Kamenetskyi  

     15. Building Competence Against Hybrid Threats: Training and Exercising Hybrid Command Organizations  

    Bjørn T. Bakken, Thorvald Hærem and Inger Lund-Kordahl  

     16. Competence for Hybrid Threats: A Strategic Competitive Development Model  

    Leif Inge Magnussen, Glenn-Egil Torgersen, Ole Boe and Herner Saeverot  

    Part V: Conclusions  

     17. Towards a Hybrid Threat Response Model  

    Odd Jarl Borch and Tormod Heier  




    Odd Jarl Borch is a Professor of Strategy at the Nord University Business School, Bodo, Norway. He is the author of more than 150 scientific publications. He has served on several government committees within industry development, safety and preparedness, including the Norwegian Total Preparedness Commission.

    Tormod Heier is a Professor of Military Strategy and Operations at the Norwegian Defence University College, Norway. He has edited or authored 14 books, on crisis management, security and defence policy, and military conflicts. He was awarded The Norwegian PEN’s Ossietzky Price for Freedom of Speech in 2017, and The Norwegian Army’s Medal of Merit in 2023.