This monograph aims to give a comprehensive and detailed review of general results, which have been obtained in a special segment of the design and manufacture of pressure-sensitive products, known as formulation. For manufacturers of pressure-sensitive products and product components, formulation probably includes the main part of their proprietary know-how. The scientific basis of formulation, explaining the reasons behind certain mixing and processing technologies, is doubtless more important than a collection of compositional data and technical parameters. This volume collects technical and scientific materials concerning the most important theoretical and practical aspects of the formulation of pressure-sensitive adhesives. Based on the author's industrial and scientific experience, this treatise constitutes a theoretical and practical state-of-the-art monograph on the formulation of pressure-sensitive products. It is a practical guide for those who want to study, manufacture or use pressure sensitive products or their components, as well as for suppliers of adhesives, elastomers, plastics and additives, or manufacturing equipment. This book will be of value and interest to production and manufacturing managers, production engineers, materials scientists, chemists and new product specialists involved in the production or application of pressure-sensitive products.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Polymer related characteristics of pressure-sensitivity 1.1.1. Glass transition temperature 1.1.2. Modulus of elasticity 1.1.3. Macromolecular characteristics 1.2. Rheological parameters in practices 1.2.1. Time-temperature superposition principle 1.2.2. Rheological effects in PSP technology 1.2.3. The influence of the components and of PSP construction CHAPTER 2. THE ROLE OF THE FORMULATION OF PRESSURE-SENSITIVE PRODUCTS 2.1. Definition of formulation 2.2. The influence of the formulation on the manufacture of pressure-sensitive products 2.2.1. The influence of the formulation on the choice of the manufacturing technology 2.2.2. The influence of the formulation on the manufacturing technology 2.3. The influence of the formulation on the converting properties 2.3.1. The influence of the formulation on dimensional stability 2.3.2. The influence of the formulation on aesthetic properties 2.3.3. The influence of the formulation on confectionating properties 2.4. The influence of the formulation on the end use properties of PSPs 2.4.1 Formulation for the adhesive properties 2.4.2. Formulation for other properties 2.5. The limits of the formulation 2.5.1. Theoretical limits of the formulation 2.5.2. Product build up as formulation limit 2.5.3. End use as formulation limit 2.5.4. Technological limits of the formulation 2.5.5. Economical limits of the formulation CHAPTER 3. FORMULATION PRINCIPLES 3.1. Synthesis related formulation 3.1.1. Off-line synthesis 3.1.2. In situ synthesis 3.2. Formulation by mixing 3.2.1. Tackification 3.2.2. Cohesion regulation 3.2.3. Detackification 3.2.4. Polymer degredation 3.2.5. Elastomer-based formulation 3.2.6. Viscoelastomer based formulation 3.2.7. Plastomer-based formulation CHAPTER 4. FORMULATION BASIS 4.1. Raw materials for PSPs 4.1.1. Raw materials as a function of the end use performances 4.1.2. Raw materials as a function of the manufacturing technology 4.1.3. Raw materials as a function of the advances in macromolecular chemistry 4.1.4. Additives 4.1.5. Economic considerations 4.2. Blending equipment 4.2.1. Blending of rubber-resin adhesives 4.2.3. Blending of viscoelastomers 4.3. Manufacturing equipment CHAPTER 5. PRACTICAL FORMULATION 5.1. Formulation for adhesive properties 5.1.1. Formulation of permanent adhesives 5.1.2. Formulation of removable adhesives 5.1.3. Formulation for special adhesive properties 5.2. Formulation of pressure-sensitive products 5.2.1. Formulation of labels 5.2.2. Formulation of tapes 5.2.3. Formulation of protective films Abbreviations and acronyms Index