Principles of Fabric Formation  book cover
1st Edition

Principles of Fabric Formation

ISBN 9781138837690
Published January 24, 2018 by CRC Press
509 Pages

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Book Description

How Are Textile Fabrics Formed?

Principles of Fabric Formation is a treatise on the modern production systems of woven, knitted, braided, nonwoven, triaxial, multiaxial, and 3D fabrics. This book offers a basic understanding of the technicalities involved in the formation of different types of textile fabrics, and brings out the relative merits and limitations of each production process in one single volume.

Gain Insight into the World of Textile Fabrics

Providing readers with an appreciation of the technicalities involved in the formation of different types of textile fabrics, the author describes all major fabric formation methods, and explains each stage of formation in the text. He also addresses all major topics related to the formation of different classes of textile fabrics, including yarn winding, warping, yarn sizing, woven fabric construction, weaving, weft knitting, warp knitting, braiding, nonwovens, and triaxial, multiaxial and 3D fabrics.

Comprised of 16 chapters, this multifaceted work:

  • Provides a technical description of fabric formation systems
  • Focuses on the diverse technicalities involved in each and every stage of formation
  • Contains a comprehensive compilation of the major principles involved

Principles of Fabric Formation is an exclusive junior/senior undergraduate-level textbook with a focus on the diverse technical principles involved in production of the entire gamut of textile fabrics.

Table of Contents

Textile Fabrics: An Overview

A Brief Outline of Various Fabric Formation Systems

Weaving System

Knitting System

Braiding System

Netting and Lacing Systems

Nonwoven Systems

Yarn Winding


Package Build

Unwinding Behavior

Precision and Random Winding

Features of a Modern Surface-Driven Cone-Winding Machine



Warping Systems

Elements of Warping Systems

Further Reading

Yarn Sizing


Importance of Sizing

Sizing Material

Sizing Machine

Special Sizing Systems


Further Reading

Basic Weaves and the Process of Drawing In

Basic Concepts

Identification of Warp and Weft

Introduction to the Basic Weaves

Repeat and Shift

Drafting and Lifting

Methods of Generating Weaves

Transformation Methods of Fabric Weave Design

Process of Drawing In


Further Reading


Primary and Secondary Motions of a Weaving Loom

Basic Machine Elements

Principles of Shedding

Principle of Shuttle Picking

Beating Up

Principles of Take Up

Principles of Let Off


Further Reading

Developments in Shedding Motions

Limitations of Shedding Tappet

Functional Principles of Dobby

Functional Principles of Jacquard

New Generation (Electronic) Jacquards

New Concepts of Jacquard Shedding

Next-Generation Shedding Systems


Further Reading

Developments in Weft Insertion Systems

Drawbacks of a Conventional System

Basic Principle of the Unconventional System

Functional Principles of Shuttleless Weft Insertion Systems


Further Reading


Features of Modern Shuttleless Weaving Systems

Machine Drive and Power Consumption

Drive to Sley

Fabric Selvedge

Productivity and Fabric Quality

Application of Electronics

Application of Composite Materials

QSC and Automation in Drawing-In

Preparatory Process

Noise Generation


Nonconventional Weaving Systems

Multiphase Weaving

Narrow Fabric Weaving


Formation of Weft-Knitted Fabrics


Basic Concepts

Process of Loop Formation

Basic Weft Knits

Conventions for Representation of Weft-Knitted Stitches

Systems of the Basic Weft-Knitting Machines

Sequence of Loop Formation

Guidelines on Control of the Knitting Process

Relationship between Geometry and Properties of a Loop


Further Reading


Formation of Warp-Knitted Fabrics

Warp-Knitting Machines

Basic Warp Knits

Sequence of Loop Formation

Shogging Motion of Guide Bars

Some Important Warp Knits

Comparison of Warp-Knitting Process Vis-à-Vis OtherYarn-to-Fabric Conversion Processes

Further Reading

Formation of Braids


Geometry of Tubular Braids

Elements of a Tubular Braiding Machine

Differences between Flat and Tubular Braid

Limitations of Braiding Systems


Formation of Nonwoven Fabrics



Fibers in Nonwoven Fabrics

Web Formation from Fibers

Web Formation from Polymer Chips

Reinforcement of Web


Further Reading

Formation of Triaxial and Multiaxial 2-D and 3-D Fabrics


Triaxial Fabric

Multiaxial Fabrics

Three-Dimensional Fabrics

Key Technological Concerns for 3-D Fabric-FormationSystems


Further Reading


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Prabir Kumar Banerjee obtained his bachelor’s degree in textile technology from the College of Textile Technology, Serampore, West Bengal in 1966; master’s degree in textile engineering from IIT Delhi in 1973; and doctorate from the erstwhile TH, Karl-Marx-Stadt of GDR in 1979. He has guided nine PhD students, published 36 papers in refereed journals, developed eight new products and processes, and holds three patents. He is a recipient of the lifetime contribution award from the International Geosynthetics Society (Delhi Chapter) and the Central Board of Irrigation and Power of India for contribution to the growth of geosynthetics in India.


"Most books in fabric formation technology are restricted to one type of technology and lack comparison on the properties and suitability for particular applications of the various technologies available. The current book overcomes this limitation. In my opinion this is the most correct way to teach the subject and the one we have always adopted at the University of Minho. In this way students and professionals may be trained to choose the most appropriate fabric for particular end-uses without any bias."
—Mario de Araujo, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

"The book covers virtually the entire subject of textile fabric manufacturing, and represents one of the most comprehensive books on fabric manufacturing. It should prove to be a very useful and important textbook and reference manual for under graduate students and industry alike."
—Lawrance Hunter, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa

"A well-designed and quite innovative book that includes many important points related to fabric formation techniques. It will be a very helpful book for students, researchers, and engineers."
—Kadir Bilisik, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey