1st Edition

Principles of Fabric Formation

By Prabir Kumar Banerjee Copyright 2015
    510 Pages
    by CRC Press

    509 Pages 414 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    How Are Textile Fabrics Formed?

    Principles of Fabric Formation is a treatise on the modern production systems of woven, knitted, braided, nonwoven, triaxial, multiaxial, and 3D fabrics. This book offers a basic understanding of the technicalities involved in the formation of different types of textile fabrics, and brings out the relative merits and limitations of each production process in one single volume.

    Gain Insight into the World of Textile Fabrics

    Providing readers with an appreciation of the technicalities involved in the formation of different types of textile fabrics, the author describes all major fabric formation methods, and explains each stage of formation in the text. He also addresses all major topics related to the formation of different classes of textile fabrics, including yarn winding, warping, yarn sizing, woven fabric construction, weaving, weft knitting, warp knitting, braiding, nonwovens, and triaxial, multiaxial and 3D fabrics.

    Comprised of 16 chapters, this multifaceted work:

    • Provides a technical description of fabric formation systems
    • Focuses on the diverse technicalities involved in each and every stage of formation
    • Contains a comprehensive compilation of the major principles involved

    Principles of Fabric Formation is an exclusive junior/senior undergraduate-level textbook with a focus on the diverse technical principles involved in production of the entire gamut of textile fabrics.

    Textile Fabrics: An Overview

    A Brief Outline of Various Fabric Formation Systems

    Weaving System

    Knitting System

    Braiding System

    Netting and Lacing Systems

    Nonwoven Systems

    Yarn Winding


    Package Build

    Unwinding Behavior

    Precision and Random Winding

    Features of a Modern Surface-Driven Cone-Winding Machine



    Warping Systems

    Elements of Warping Systems

    Further Reading

    Yarn Sizing


    Importance of Sizing

    Sizing Material

    Sizing Machine

    Special Sizing Systems


    Further Reading

    Basic Weaves and the Process of Drawing In

    Basic Concepts

    Identification of Warp and Weft

    Introduction to the Basic Weaves

    Repeat and Shift

    Drafting and Lifting

    Methods of Generating Weaves

    Transformation Methods of Fabric Weave Design

    Process of Drawing In


    Further Reading


    Primary and Secondary Motions of a Weaving Loom

    Basic Machine Elements

    Principles of Shedding

    Principle of Shuttle Picking

    Beating Up

    Principles of Take Up

    Principles of Let Off


    Further Reading

    Developments in Shedding Motions

    Limitations of Shedding Tappet

    Functional Principles of Dobby

    Functional Principles of Jacquard

    New Generation (Electronic) Jacquards

    New Concepts of Jacquard Shedding

    Next-Generation Shedding Systems


    Further Reading

    Developments in Weft Insertion Systems

    Drawbacks of a Conventional System

    Basic Principle of the Unconventional System

    Functional Principles of Shuttleless Weft Insertion Systems


    Further Reading


    Features of Modern Shuttleless Weaving Systems

    Machine Drive and Power Consumption

    Drive to Sley

    Fabric Selvedge

    Productivity and Fabric Quality

    Application of Electronics

    Application of Composite Materials

    QSC and Automation in Drawing-In

    Preparatory Process

    Noise Generation


    Nonconventional Weaving Systems

    Multiphase Weaving

    Narrow Fabric Weaving


    Formation of Weft-Knitted Fabrics


    Basic Concepts

    Process of Loop Formation

    Basic Weft Knits

    Conventions for Representation of Weft-Knitted Stitches

    Systems of the Basic Weft-Knitting Machines

    Sequence of Loop Formation

    Guidelines on Control of the Knitting Process

    Relationship between Geometry and Properties of a Loop


    Further Reading


    Formation of Warp-Knitted Fabrics

    Warp-Knitting Machines

    Basic Warp Knits

    Sequence of Loop Formation

    Shogging Motion of Guide Bars

    Some Important Warp Knits

    Comparison of Warp-Knitting Process Vis-à-Vis OtherYarn-to-Fabric Conversion Processes

    Further Reading

    Formation of Braids


    Geometry of Tubular Braids

    Elements of a Tubular Braiding Machine

    Differences between Flat and Tubular Braid

    Limitations of Braiding Systems


    Formation of Nonwoven Fabrics



    Fibers in Nonwoven Fabrics

    Web Formation from Fibers

    Web Formation from Polymer Chips

    Reinforcement of Web


    Further Reading

    Formation of Triaxial and Multiaxial 2-D and 3-D Fabrics


    Triaxial Fabric

    Multiaxial Fabrics

    Three-Dimensional Fabrics

    Key Technological Concerns for 3-D Fabric-FormationSystems


    Further Reading



    Prabir Kumar Banerjee obtained his bachelor’s degree in textile technology from the College of Textile Technology, Serampore, West Bengal in 1966; master’s degree in textile engineering from IIT Delhi in 1973; and doctorate from the erstwhile TH, Karl-Marx-Stadt of GDR in 1979. He has guided nine PhD students, published 36 papers in refereed journals, developed eight new products and processes, and holds three patents. He is a recipient of the lifetime contribution award from the International Geosynthetics Society (Delhi Chapter) and the Central Board of Irrigation and Power of India for contribution to the growth of geosynthetics in India.

    "Most books in fabric formation technology are restricted to one type of technology and lack comparison on the properties and suitability for particular applications of the various technologies available. The current book overcomes this limitation. In my opinion this is the most correct way to teach the subject and the one we have always adopted at the University of Minho. In this way students and professionals may be trained to choose the most appropriate fabric for particular end-uses without any bias."
    —Mario de Araujo, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

    "The book covers virtually the entire subject of textile fabric manufacturing, and represents one of the most comprehensive books on fabric manufacturing. It should prove to be a very useful and important textbook and reference manual for under graduate students and industry alike."
    —Lawrance Hunter, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa

    "A well-designed and quite innovative book that includes many important points related to fabric formation techniques. It will be a very helpful book for students, researchers, and engineers."
    —Kadir Bilisik, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey