Principles of Supply Chain Management: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Principles of Supply Chain Management

2nd Edition

By Richard E. Crandall, Richard E. Crandall, William R. Crandall, Charlie C. Chen

CRC Press

718 pages | 66 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781482212020
pub: 2014-12-11
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429255755
pub: 2014-12-11
from $60.00

FREE Standard Shipping!


The second edition of this popular textbook presents a balanced overview of the principles of supply chain management. Going beyond the usual supply chain text, Principles of Supply Chain Management not only details the individual components of the supply chain, but also illustrates how the pieces must come together. To show the logic behind why supply chain management is essential, the text examines how supply chains are evolving, looks ahead to new developments, and provides a balanced look at supply chains with a focus on both the customer side and the supplier side of supply chains.

See What’s New in the Second Edition:

  • Expanded coverage of current topics such as e-commerce, risk management, outsourcing and reshoring, sustainability, project management, and data analytics
  • Increased emphasis on how customers are becoming more influential in steering product design
  • Additional coverage of the use of data analytics to evaluate customer preferences and buying patterns
  • A new chapter devoted to logistics and its increasing importance in supply chains
  • Company profiles of organizations with effective supply chains that illustrate the main theme of each chapter
  • A "Hot Topic" for each chapter, providing a description of a critical management issue to stimulate class discussion
  • A complete set of instructor materials for each chapter, including presentation slides, test banks, class exercises, discussion questions, and more

From the point of distribution to the final customer, all the way back to the point of origin at the mine or farm, the text provides examples and case histories that illustrate a proven approach for achieving effective supply chain integration. This self-contained resource provides readers with a realistic appraisal of the state of the art in supply chain management and the understanding needed to build and manage effective supply chains in a wide range of industries. Most importantly, it emphasizes the need for building and maintaining collaboration among all members of the supply chain.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition




Chapter Outline


Evolution of Supply Chains

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Procter & Gamble (P&G)

What Is a Supply Chain?

Importance of SCM

Evolution of Supply Chains

Early Supply Chains

Local Supply Chains

Global Supply Chains

Changing Government Orientation

State-Controlled Governments

Market-Driven Governments

Current Trends that Link Supply Chain Participants More Closely

Relationship Building

Electronic Business

Developing Economies


Need for Quality Improvement

Changing Customer Demands

Current Developments in SCM

Power Has Shifted from Manufacturers to Retailers

Consolidation of Small, Local, or Regional Retailers into National Chains

Emergence of "Killer Category" Retailers

From a Make-and-Sell Mentality to a Sense-and-Respond Orientation

Obstacles to Supply Chain Integration

Need for Globalization

Complexity of Arranging Entities with Common Interests

Lack of Effective Interorganizational Systems

Need for Multiple Supply Chains within Companies

Lack of Trust between Participants

Examples of Companies with Successful Supply Chains


Hot Topic: Outsourcing to Low Wage Countries

Discussion Questions


Supply Chains as a System

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Zara’s


Supply Chain Systems




Manufacturing versus Services

Characteristics of Supply Chains

Physical Flow

Information Flow

Funds Flow

Relational Flow

Examples of Supply Chains in Different Industries

Internal and External Customers

Open Systems versus Closed Systems

Effect of External Influences on Supply Chains

Obstacles and Enablers of Supply Chain Integration



Performance Measurement

Allocation of Costs, Resources, and Benefits along the Supply Chain

Value Creation as the Ultimate Objective


Hot Topic: How a Natural Disaster Can Cripple a Supply Chain

Discussion Questions



Determining Customer Needs

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: McDonald’s


Group Customers into Homogeneous Segments

Determine Needs of the Ultimate Consumer

Product Needs

Service Needs

Marketing Mix

Manufacturing and Service Supply Chains

Accurately Determine Customer Needs


Market Research

Open System Scanning

Develop Reliable Demand Forecasts

Quantitative Forecasting Methods

Qualitative Forecasting Methods

Collaborative Forecasting

Determine the Attributes of a Well-Designed Product

Functionality (Product Works to Satisfy Customers’ Needs)

Validity (Product Has Value and Functions at a Reasonable Cost)

Manufacturability (Product Can Be Efficiently Produced)

Reliability (Product Has a Variety of Quality Attributes)

Serviceability (Product Can Be Serviced during Its Effective Life)

Recyclability (Product Can Be Recycled along the Reverse Logistics Supply Chain)

Consider Alternative Product Design Approaches

Quality Function Deployment

Concurrent Engineering

Design for Manufacturability

Design for Sustainability

Determine the Number of Supply Chains Needed by a Company

Align with Customer Segment

Align with Product/Service Bundle

Align with Supplier Category

Align with Common Incentives

Respond to Needs of Internal Customers


Hot Topic: Human Trafficking

Discussion Questions


A System to Meet Customer Needs

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: GE Aviation

Supply Chain Models

Global Supply Chain Forum Model

Customer Relationship Management

Origins of CRM

What Can CRM Do?


CRM Processes


CRM’s Future

Product Life Cycle Management

What Is PLM?

How Did PLM Evolve?

What Does PLM Include?

What Does PLM Not Include?

What Are the Benefits of PLM?

What Are the Obstacles?

What Is the Present Status of PLM?

What Does the Future Hold?

Supply Chain Configuration

Basic (Generic) Supply Chain

Variations for Different Industries

Supply Chain Mapping

Determining Resource Requirements





Information Systems

Designing Processes to Match with Products

Make to Stock

Assemble to Order

Make to Order

Engineer to Order

Determining the Mix of Make and Buy

Core Competency Concept

Total Cost of Ownership

Cost Reduction versus Revenue Increase Considerations

Effect of Outsourcing Movement

Aligning Entities along the Supply Chain

Entities to Be Involved

Allocation of Authority and Responsibility among Entities

Collaboration Process

Implementation Plan

Evaluating the System Design

Will It Accomplish Its Objectives?

Is It Sustainable?

Is It Flexible?


Hot Topic: Sweatshops

Discussion Questions


Demand Management

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: NextEra


Definition of Demand Management

Importance of Demand Management

Managing Demand

Accept All Demand

Select the Types of Demand to Accept

Solicit External Input in Forming Demand Patterns

Design the Form in Which Demand Will Be Accepted

Impose Constraints on Demand Submission

Managing Supply

Select a Demand Management Strategy

Develop a Demand-Forecasting System

Determine the Resource Requirements to Meet the Demand

Merging Supply and Demand into a Demand Management Process

Sales and Operations Planning to Match Short-Term Supply and Demand

Collaboration among Supply Chain Participants

Demand Management in Manufacturing

Demand Management in Services

Proposed Demand Management Strategies

Factors That Affect Selection of a Demand Management Strategy

Resources’ Value

Type of Demand

Top Management Strategies

Relationship between Factors and Strategies

Model for Integrating Demand and Supply Management

Programs Used to Implement Demand Management Strategies

Provide Strategy Programs

Match Strategy Programs

Influence Strategy Programs

Control Strategy Programs

Demand Management along the Supply Chain




Mining and Agriculture


Hot Topic: The Problem of Cheap

Discussion Questions



Distribution and Retailing

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Lowe’s


Retail Function

History of Retailing

Characteristics of the Industry

Customers and Markets



Transformation Process

Impact on Operations Management

Designing the Retail Process

Strategic Orientation

Critical Design Points: Keys to Success

Additional Factors to Consider in Retail Store Design

Managing a Retail Business

Determine the Expected Demand

Plan Capacity to Meet Demand

Implement the Operating Plan

Measure Performance

Replan for the Next Period

Retail and Inventory Management






Response Time

Present Situation in Retailing

Future in Retailing

Role of Wholesalers and Distribution Centers





Loading the Trucks

Transporting to Stores

Unloading and Display at Stores

Critical Success Factors for Distribution

Inventory within Distribution Functions

Inventory Management between Retailer and Distributor

Technology in Distribution Functions

At the Retail Store

Movement of Goods

At the Distribution Center

Distribution Center Design

Positioning Services within the Distribution Functions

Presale Services

Postsale Services

Role of Third-Party Service Providers

Distribution Performance Measurement

Financial Performance Measures

Operating Performance Measures

Collaboration Performance Measures

Retailer–Distributor Relationship


Hot Topic: Contaminated Milk

Discussion Questions


Production and Service Processes

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Caterpillar


Evolution of the Production Function

From Craft to Mass Production

From Mass Production to Mass Customization

Critical Success Factors for Manufacturers

Cost and Efficiency


Responsiveness: Timing of Delivery

Responsiveness: Product/Service Mix



Information Technology

Manufacturing Strategies

Make to Stock

Locate to Order

Assemble to Order

Make to Order

Engineer to Order

Batch to Lean Operations

Present Batch Flow

Proposed Lean Production Flow

Customer Lead Time

Extra Available Space

Faster Detection of Quality Problems

Ease of Transferring Operators

Reduced Scheduling Requirements

Smaller Lot Sizes

No Buildup of WIP Inventory

Empowered Employees

Reduced Equipment Breakdowns

Reduced Late Material Deliveries

Obstacles to Implementing Lean

Make or Buy Strategies

Vertical Integration


Capacity Planning

How Much Capacity? When? What Kind?

Location and Ownership

Service Production Strategies

Relationships with Downstream Customers

From Transactions to Processes

Transactions versus Processes

Basic Processes of a Business

Benefits of a Process Orientation

Effect of Process Orientation

Organizational Structure


Knowledge Management

Change Management

Trends in Production

From Manual to Automated

From Domestic to Global

From Standard Products to Customized


Sales and Operations Planning

Additive Manufacturing

Performance Measurement

As Measured by Accounting

As Measured by Production

Measures along the Supply Chain


Hot Topic: Clothing Manufacturing

Discussion Questions



Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Nestlé


Role of Procurement in the Supply Chain

Traditional Purchasing

Contemporary Purchasing

Changing Role of Purchasing

Critical Success Factors for Purchasing





Match Inflow with Outflow

Reduce Variances in Delivery

Increase Supplier Dependability

Reduce the Bullwhip Effect

Become an Intercompany Facilitator

Find Sustainable Suppliers

Purchasing Functions: Participating

Product Design

Product Specifications

New Product Introduction

Target Costing

Strategic Sourcing

Supplier Location

Inventory Management

Supplier Risk Management

Purchasing Functions: Directing

Purchasing Process

Supplier Evaluation

Supplier Relationship Management

Supply Chain Coordination/Collaboration

Purchasing along the Supply Chain





Mining and Agriculture


Offshore Outsourcing

As a Strategic Concept

TCO Considerations

As a Project, with Project Management Needs

Other Considerations: Intangible Costs and Public Acceptance

Supplier Location as a Strategy for Entering an Offshore Market

Performance Measurement

Traditional: Positive Purchase Price Variance

Contemporary: Enhanced Value for the Consumer

Future of Purchasing


Hot Topic: Why Apple Juice Should Be Made from … Apples

Discussion Questions


Logistics: The Glue That Holds the Supply Chain Together

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Transportation Insight

Scope of Logistics

Evolution of Integrated Logistics


Truck: Privately Owned or Third-Party Carriers

Rail: For Selected Goods





Transmission Lines

Fiber-Optic Cable Networks

Materials Management

Interim Storage

Exchange Points




Drivers of the Outsourcing Movement

Steps in the Outsourcing Decision

Reshoring Initiative

Rise of 3PLs

Benefits of 3PL Services

Obstacles to Successful Implementation

Trend toward Outsourcing the Distribution Function

Major Companies

Role of 4PL in Building Supply Chain Relationships

High-Tech Industry Issues

Risk Management

Status Report

Hot Topic: Container Shipping and its Risk Points

Discussion Questions


Reverse Supply Chains

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: GENCO


Description of Reverse Supply Chain Networks

Benefits of Reverse Logistics

Barriers to Reverse Logistics

Continuation of Forward Supply Chains

History of Reverse Logistics

Principal Drivers of the Movement

Individual Consumers

Individual Businesses

Society as a Group

Business Sector

Educational Institutions

Governments: At All Levels

Activities in Reverse Logistics

Service: Assure Proper Use of Product

Returns: Repackaging or Relocation

Restoration: Minor Modification or Repair

Remanufacturing: Overhaul and Major Rebuilding

Recycling: Reconstitution as Part of Another Product

Disposal: Return to Natural State

Hazardous Waste Disposal

Role of Private Industry

New Paradigms in Product Design (Design for Sustainability)

Design and Operate Green Supply Chains

Develop Systems to Manage Reverse Logistics

Participate in Joint Ventures to Seek Social Objectives

Role of Government

Research: To Identify Threats and Opportunities

Legislation: To Standardize Business Requirements

Regulation: To Monitor Performance

Participation: To Encourage and Support Ongoing Programs

Role of Consumer

Participant in Reverse Supply Chain Programs

Educated Consumer

Supporter of Green Supply Chain Efforts

Reverse Logistics Network

Continuation of the Forward Supply Chain

Open System Environment

Heavily Outsourced by Major Businesses

Need for a Life Cycle Systems Approach

Need for IT

Other Considerations in Designing Reverse Supply Chains


Growth in Amount of Materials Recycled

Increase in Number of Companies Performing Reverse Logistics Activities

Joint Ventures between Private Business and Government

Increased Emphasis on Prevention, Not Just Reusing

More Companies Will Design Integrated Reverse Logistics Systems


Hot Topic: Reshoring: Revisiting the Make or Buy Decision

Discussion Questions



The Need to Integrate

Expected Outcomes

Company Profile: Cisco


Setting the Stage

Reasons to Integrate

Research in Support of Integration Efforts

From Mass Production to Mass Customization

From Craft to Mass Production

Prelude to Mass Customization

From Vertical Integration to Virtual Integration

From Homogeneous Cultures to Diverse Cultures

From Bottom Line to Triple Bottom Line

Drivers of Change

Global Competition

Global Markets

Economic Advantage

Relationships and Trust among Supply Chain Participants

Trust between Individuals

Formal Contracts or Agreements

Common Interests or Projects (Enforced Trust)

Involves Change Management

Change Is Difficult within a Company

Change Is More Difficult for a Community

Change Is Most Difficult for an Entire Country

Steps in the Integration Process

Build Interfaces with Customers and Suppliers

Change Interfaces to Interlaces to Make the Relationships Closer

Change Interlaces to Integrated Relationships

Need for Strategic Planning

Categories of Operations

Normal Operations

Improvement Programs

Problem-Solving Programs

Crisis Management

Need for a Multiyear Project Plan

Performance Measurement across the Supply Chain

Integration Requires Sharing


Hot Topic: Atomic Energy Canada Limited Encounters Problems with Its Cancer-Fighting Machine, Part 1

Discussion Questions


Why Integration Is Difficult

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Boeing


Determining Strategic Objectives

Evaluating the Potential Return on Investment

Uncertainty of Benefits

Uncertainty of Costs

Uncertainty of Assets Employed

Designing for Participant Differences

Participants Are Not Equal

Technical Differences

Need for Multiple Supply Chains

Different Customer Segments

Different Supplier Segments

Different Logistics Networks

Separating Interwoven Networks

Selecting and Implementing Technology

Product and Service Processes

Incomplete Interorganizational Systems

Financial Funds Flow

Realigning Infrastructure

Internal Organization

Effect of Outsourcing Movement

External Organization

Policies and Procedures

Physical Infrastructure

Transforming Company Cultures



Building Relationships





Lack of Trust Inhibits Collaboration

Measuring Performance

Maintaining the System

During the Implementation Process

During the Operation of the Supply Chain

Extension into Reverse Logistics

Obstacles to International SCM


Hot Topic: Atomic Energy Canada Limited Encounters Problems with Its Cancer Fighting Machine (Part 2)

Discussion Questions


How to Build an Integrated Supply Chain

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Interface, Inc.


Who Manages the Supply Chain?

Past and Future of Supply Chain Management

Present Supply Chains

Virtual Supply Chains

Contractual Alliances

Dominant Party Management

Third-Party Direct Management

Third-Party Indirect (Third-Party) Management

World of Lean Production


Purchasing Process

Production Process

Delivery Process

Demand Variation

Moving from Functional Focus to Cross-Enterprise Collaboration

Comprehensive Supply Chain Model

Decisions Needed to Achieve a Lean and Agile Supply Chain





Integrated Supply Chain




Steps in the Change Process










A Look Ahead




Hot Topic: Atomic Energy Canada Limited Encounters Problems with Its Cancer Fighting Machine (Part 3)

Discussion Questions



Information Flow along the Supply Chain

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: SAP


Need for Information Flow

Types of Information Transmitted

Upstream Suppliers

Midstream (Internal)

Downstream Customers

Reverse Supply Chain

Supply Chain Connectivity

Intracompany Technologies Used

Data Capture and Communication

Data Storage and Retrieval

Data Manipulation and Reporting

Supply Chain Direct Links

Customer Relationship Management

Supplier Relationship Management

Linking Technologies

Interorganizational Systems

EDI and Internet EDI

Linking Applications


Sales and Operations Planning

Product Life Cycle Management

Third-Party Services

Service-Oriented Architecture

Software as a Service

Cloud Computing

Benefits of Information Technologies

Tangible Benefits

Intangible Benefits

Barriers to IT Adoption

Technological Obstacles

Managerial Obstacles

Societal Obstacles

Model of an Integrated Supply Chain Information System


Hot Topic: The Boeing 787: A New Supply Chain Model in the Commercial Aircraft Industry—Part 1

Discussion Questions


Funds Flow along the Supply Chain

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Wells Fargo

Overview of the Flow of Funds

Need for Cash Flow within a Company

Supply Chain Funds Flow

Flows in a Supply Chain

Benefits of Improved Funds Flow


External Sources of Funds

Banks and Other Lending Institutions

Supply Chain Finance

Performance Measurement

Financial Accounting Measures: Current Ratio

Management Accounting Measures

Need for Finance and Operations to Collaborate

Effect of Production Strategies on Funds Flow

Effect of Outsourcing on Product Costs and Capital Requirements

Interorganizational Systems







Funds Flow in the Reverse Supply Chain

Comprehensive Example

Components of a Financial Statement

Analyzing the Cash Flow Statement

Looking at Alternatives


Hot Topic: The Boeing 787, Problems in the Supply Chain (Part 2)

Discussion Questions


ROI for Supply Chains and Other Issues

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Apple

Supply Chain Configurations

Programs Requiring Close Supply Chain Relationships

Need to Evaluate Supply Chain ROI

Tangible Benefits

Tangible Costs

Indirect Costs

Intangible Benefits

Intangible Costs

Obstacles to Equitable Distribution among Members

How to Organize?

How to Distribute?

Supply Chain Governance Models

Prime Mover in the Supply Chain


Select the Team

Monitor Ongoing Operations

Evaluate Performance

Initiate Change

Third-Party Provider

Changes in Supply Chain Composition

Dictated by Prime Mover

Consensus of the Supply Chain Participants

Consultation with an Outside Adviser

Mediation by Third Party

Legal Action

Case Studies

Use of Accounting Records

RFID Implementation

Cost Reductions with Investment Requirements

Supply Chain Finance

Benefits of Supply Chain Collaboration


Hot Topic: The Boeing 787, Pushing the Limits of Outsourcing (Part 3)

Discussion Questions



Trends in Supply Chain Management

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Amazon

From the Past to the Present

From the American Revolution to World War II

From World War II until the Present

Evolution of Critical Success Factors in the United States

Beginning (from First Settlements through 1800)

Industrial Revolution (1840s–1890s)

Growth and Recovery (1890s–1930s)

Mass Production (1940s–1950s)

Arisings (1960s–1970s)

Awakening (1980s)

Globalization I (1990s)

Globalization II and Mass Customization (2000 and after)

Major Drivers of Change in Supply Chains

Global Business Perspective

Balanced Approach to Offshore Outsourcing

Total Cost of Ownership

Risk Management

Other Issues

Continuing Advances in Technology

Retail Operations

Demand Forecasting

Transportation and Distribution

Information Systems

From Special-Purpose to General-Purpose Resources

Evolution from Transactions to Processes

Transactions versus Processes

Benefits of a Process Orientation

Vanishing Boundaries between Manufacturing and Services

Infrastructure Refinements

From Vertical to Horizontal Organizations

From Rigid Rules to Flexible Policies and Procedures

From Tacit Knowledge to Implicit Knowledge

From Financial Accounting to Management Accounting

Culture and Employees

From Passive or Obstructing Culture to Engaged and Receptive Culture

Employees: From Specialized to Empowered

Supply Chain Relationships

From Adversarial to Collaborative

Trust and Distrust

Emergence of Third-Party Supply Chain Coordinators

Risk Management

Increased Complexity and Risk

Internal Risks

External (Open System Environment) Influences

Natural Disasters


Triple Bottom Line

Beyond the Triple Bottom Line

Why Should Business Take the Lead?

Need for Alliances

Benefits and Obstacles

Sustainability in the Future

Strategic Employee Plan


Hot Topic: Finding Solutions to the Sweatshop Problem

Discussion Questions


Preparation for the Future

Learning Outcomes

Company Profile: Google

Recognize the Need to Adapt







Develop New Measures of Success

Financial Success

Social Responsibility


Integrating Financial Results, Society Equity, and Sustainability

Identify What Needs to Be Done

APICS E&R Foundation Inc

McKinsey Study

University of Tennessee

Adapt to Government Actions


Business Ethics

Product Safety

Social Equity


Capitalize on Third-Party Skills

Direct Support: Outsourcing

Indirect Support: Financing and Insurance

Advisory: Consulting and Training

Analyst: Measure Performance and Identify Needs

Manager: Virtual Holding Company

Utilize Information Technology

Enterprise Resource Planning Extension

Service-Oriented Architecture

Internet Processes

Interorganizational Systems

Take Advantage of Other Technologies

Organization and Teams

Project Management

Process Technology

Build Strategic and Operational Plans

Continue the Drive for Collaboration

Develop Performance Measures for Supply Chain Management

Integrate Delivery Effectiveness Measures

Integrate Cost and Quality Measures

Supplier Profitability

Effectiveness of Supply Chain Integration

Structure the Organization to Manage Change


Integrate All Functions

Educate the Work Force

Increase Marketing Influence

Overcome Inertia

Expand Knowledge Management

From Data to Information

From Information to Knowledge

From Knowledge to Wisdom

Some Ways to Learn

Obstacles to Knowledge Transfer

Will Knowledge Replace "Things"?

Acquire Data Analytics Capabilities







Integrate Manufacturing and Services

Apply Chaos Theory to Business


Hot Topic: How Social Media Knocked Down the Lean Finely Textured Beef Industry

Discussion Questions



About the Authors

Richard E. "Dick" Crandall is a professor in the College of Business at Appalachian State University (ASU), Boone, North Carolina. He is certified in production and inventory management (CFPIM) and as a supply chain professional (CSCP) by APICS-The Association for Operations Management. He earned his PhD in production/operations management from the University of South Carolina, Columbia, and is a registered professional engineer and a certified public accountant. Prior to joining ASU, Dick worked as an industrial engineer and in management positions for manufacturing and service companies. He was a consultant with a major consulting firm, installing systems for both operations and financial applications. With Rick Crandall, he coauthored the book Vanishing Boundaries, How Integrating Manufacturing and Services Creates Customer Value, by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

William "Rick" Crandall currently serves as a professor of management in the School of Business at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. He received his PhD in business administration with a focus on organizational behavior and human resource management from the University of Memphis, Tennessee. His primary research interest is in the area of crisis management, helping organizations cope with catastrophic events. He is the author of the book, Crisis Management in the New Strategy Landscape (coauthored with John Parnell and John Spillan, also of the University of North Carolina at Pembroke), released by Sage Publications. He is also active in researching issues related to supply chain management. Prior to entering higher education, Dr. Crandall worked in management for ARA Services (now ARAMARK), a service management firm based in Philadelphia.

Dr. Charlie C. Chen was educated at Claremont Graduate University, California, and earned his PhD in management information systems. He is a professor in the Department of Computer Information Systems at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina. His research interests include project management and supply chain management. He is a member of the Association for Information Systems and Decision Sciences Institute and is certified by the Project Management Institute as a project management professional (PMP). Dr. Chen has published in journals such as Communications of Association for Information Systems, Behaviour and Information Technology, Journal of Knowledge Management Research & Practice, and the Journal of Information Systems Education. Dr. Chen is a dedicated transnational scholar and a trip leader for study-abroad programs in Asia (Japan and Taiwan).

About the Series

Resource Management

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Purchasing & Buying