Principles of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy  book cover
1st Edition

Principles of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

ISBN 9781138077492
Published November 22, 2017 by CRC Press
555 Pages 346 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy, in particular, and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems, in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital modulation, signal impairments, and synchronization, as well as emerging systems.

Table of Contents

You and Me
Mr. Watson, Come Here, I Want To See You
The Technology of Telephone
Telephone Exchanges
Long Distance Communication
The Need for Multiplexing
The Techniques of Multiplexing
Multiplexing Structure of Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
Capacities of Various Analog (FDM) Multiplexing Systems
Digital Multiplexing
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Advent of Digital Technology
Analog Communication Systems
Problems in Analog Communication Systems
What is Done about These Problems?
The Digital Advantage
The Digital Signal
Processing of Digital Signal
Channel Capacity in Digital Technology
Advantages of Digital Technology
Disadvantages of Digital Technology
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Analog to Digital Conversion and TDM Principles
Analog and Digital Signals
Sampling Theorem
(Analog) Pulse Modulation
Digital Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Other Digital Modulations
Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog Converters
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Line Coding and Digital Modulation
Factors Affecting the Choice of Line Codes
Types of Line Codes
Digital Modulation Techniques
Other Means of Improving the Timing Content
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

What is Clock
Significance of Clock
Clock Waveform
Types of Clocks
Clock Accuracies Required in Communication Systems
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Signal Impairments, Error Detection, and Correction
Types of Signal Impairments
Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)
Jitter and Wander
Eye Diagram
Error Detection
Error Correction
Link Performance
Required Link Performance
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Synchronization Process
Synchronous versus Asynchronous Systems
Synchronous Networks
Plesiochronous networks
Elastic Store and Controlled Slips
Line Synchronization vs Network Synchronization
Types of Network Synchronization
Synchronization Network Engineering
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
Higher order Multiplexing/Hierarchical Multiplexing
E3 Multiplexing
E4 multiplexing
Higher Bit Rates
Framing Stages and Tributary Data, Overhead and Payload Bits
North American PDH Hierarchy
Types of Line Codes used in PDH
Synchronization in PDH
Asynchronous Vs Synchronous Multiplexing
Skip Multiplexers
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

PDH Maintenance Alarms
Types of Alarms
Loss of Signal (LOS)
Loss of Framing (LOF)
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)
Remote Defect Indication (RDI)
Determination of Fault Location
Loss of Multi-Frame Alignment (LOMF)
Multi-Frame Alignment AIS (MFAIS)
Multi-Frame Alignment RDI (MFRDI)
Remote End Block Error (REBE)
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Principles
Evolution of SDH
Advantages of SDH
The Price to be paid for the Advantages
Synchronous Transport Module (STM)
Formation of STM-1
Virtual Containers
Path and Section
SDH Layers
Tributary Unit
Further Multiplexing
Multiplexing Higher order PDH Tributaries
Complete SDH Multiplexing Structure
Frame Structure of STM-1
Formation of Higher Order STMs
Frame Structure of Higher Order STMs
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Operations and Maintenance in SDH
Performance Monitoring
Fault Diagnostics and Restoration
Summary of SDH Alarms and Indications
Performance Monitoring Parameters
Roles of Other Overhead Bytes
Overhead Bytes Summary
Network Management in SDH
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

SDH Architecture and Protection Mechanisms
SDH Network Elements
SDH Network Topologies
Work and Protect Paths
The Advantage of a Ring
Protection Switching Schemes
Self Healing Rings
Types of Automatic Protection Switching
MS Dedicated Ring Protection
MS Shared Ring Protection
Other Important Features of Protection Switching
Sub Network Connection Protection
Comparison of Various Protection Schemes
Deployment of Protection in a Network
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Data over SDH
Problems of Interfacing Data and SDH
Data as Payload
Contiguous Concatenation
Mapping of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Frames
Mapping of HDLC, PPP, Ethernet, IP, LAPS
Shortcomings of Data over SDH
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Emerging Systems and Future of SDH
The Case for Ethernet Backbone
The SDH’s Fight
Next Generation SDH
Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)
New Generation Network Elements
Carrier Ethernet
What is Future? SDH or Packet Networks
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Transmission Media for PDH/SDH and Optical Fiber Technology
Types of media for the transmission of PDH and SDH signals
Optical Fiber Communication Technology
All Optical Networks
OFC Link Budget
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

Introduction to Optical Transport Networks (OTN)
Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH) Principles
Multiplexing Structure of OTN
Multiplexing Hierarchy of OTN (OTH )
OTN Layers
OTN Domain Interfaces
Advantages of OTN
Frame Structure of OTN
Forward Error Correction (FEC)
Operations & Maintenance in OTN
Future of OTN
Review Questions
Critical Thinking

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".. one of the best book for practicing engineers in the field of OFC based SDH systems."
—S.K. Biswas, Chief Communication Engineer, Western Railway, Mumbai, India