Principles of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Principles of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

1st Edition

By Rajesh Kumar Jain

CRC Press

555 pages | 346 B/W Illus.

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The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy, in particular, and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems, in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital modulation, signal impairments, and synchronization, as well as emerging systems.


".. one of the best book for practicing engineers in the field of OFC based SDH systems."

—S.K. Biswas, Chief Communication Engineer, Western Railway, Mumbai, India

Table of Contents


You and Me

Mr. Watson, Come Here, I Want To See You

The Technology of Telephone

Telephone Exchanges

Long Distance Communication

The Need for Multiplexing

The Techniques of Multiplexing

Multiplexing Structure of Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)

Capacities of Various Analog (FDM) Multiplexing Systems

Digital Multiplexing


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Advent of Digital Technology

Analog Communication Systems

Problems in Analog Communication Systems

What is Done about These Problems?

The Digital Advantage

The Digital Signal

Processing of Digital Signal

Channel Capacity in Digital Technology

Advantages of Digital Technology

Disadvantages of Digital Technology


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Analog to Digital Conversion and TDM Principles

Analog and Digital Signals

Sampling Theorem

(Analog) Pulse Modulation

Digital Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

Other Digital Modulations

Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog Converters

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Line Coding and Digital Modulation

Factors Affecting the Choice of Line Codes

Types of Line Codes

Digital Modulation Techniques

Other Means of Improving the Timing Content


Review Questions

Critical Thinking


What is Clock

Significance of Clock

Clock Waveform

Types of Clocks

Clock Accuracies Required in Communication Systems


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Signal Impairments, Error Detection, and Correction

Types of Signal Impairments



Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)

Jitter and Wander

Eye Diagram

Error Detection

Error Correction

Link Performance

Required Link Performance


Review Questions

Critical Thinking


Synchronization Process

Synchronous versus Asynchronous Systems

Synchronous Networks

Plesiochronous networks


Elastic Store and Controlled Slips

Line Synchronization vs Network Synchronization

Types of Network Synchronization


Synchronization Network Engineering


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)


Higher order Multiplexing/Hierarchical Multiplexing

E3 Multiplexing

E4 multiplexing

Higher Bit Rates

Framing Stages and Tributary Data, Overhead and Payload Bits

North American PDH Hierarchy

Types of Line Codes used in PDH

Synchronization in PDH

Asynchronous Vs Synchronous Multiplexing

Skip Multiplexers


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

PDH Maintenance Alarms

Types of Alarms

Loss of Signal (LOS)

Loss of Framing (LOF)

Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)

Remote Defect Indication (RDI)

Determination of Fault Location

Loss of Multi-Frame Alignment (LOMF)

Multi-Frame Alignment AIS (MFAIS)

Multi-Frame Alignment RDI (MFRDI)

Remote End Block Error (REBE)


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Principles

Evolution of SDH

Advantages of SDH

The Price to be paid for the Advantages

Synchronous Transport Module (STM)

Formation of STM-1



Virtual Containers

Path and Section

SDH Layers

Tributary Unit

Further Multiplexing

Multiplexing Higher order PDH Tributaries

Complete SDH Multiplexing Structure

Frame Structure of STM-1


Formation of Higher Order STMs

Frame Structure of Higher Order STMs


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Operations and Maintenance in SDH

Performance Monitoring

Fault Diagnostics and Restoration

Summary of SDH Alarms and Indications

Performance Monitoring Parameters

Roles of Other Overhead Bytes

Overhead Bytes Summary

Network Management in SDH


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

SDH Architecture and Protection Mechanisms

SDH Network Elements

SDH Network Topologies

Work and Protect Paths

The Advantage of a Ring

Protection Switching Schemes

Self Healing Rings

Types of Automatic Protection Switching

MS Dedicated Ring Protection

MS Shared Ring Protection

Other Important Features of Protection Switching

Sub Network Connection Protection

Comparison of Various Protection Schemes

Deployment of Protection in a Network


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Data over SDH

Problems of Interfacing Data and SDH

Data as Payload


Contiguous Concatenation

Mapping of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Frames

Mapping of HDLC, PPP, Ethernet, IP, LAPS

Shortcomings of Data over SDH


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Emerging Systems and Future of SDH

The Case for Ethernet Backbone

The SDH’s Fight

Next Generation SDH

Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)

New Generation Network Elements

Carrier Ethernet

What is Future? SDH or Packet Networks


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Transmission Media for PDH/SDH and Optical Fiber Technology

Types of media for the transmission of PDH and SDH signals

Optical Fiber Communication Technology

All Optical Networks

OFC Link Budget


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Introduction to Optical Transport Networks (OTN)

Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH) Principles

Multiplexing Structure of OTN

Multiplexing Hierarchy of OTN (OTH )

OTN Layers

OTN Domain Interfaces

Advantages of OTN

Frame Structure of OTN

Forward Error Correction (FEC)

Operations & Maintenance in OTN

Future of OTN


Review Questions

Critical Thinking

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Networking / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications