Principles of Toxicology: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Principles of Toxicology

3rd Edition

By Karen E. Stine, Thomas M. Brown

CRC Press

455 pages | 144 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2015-04-16
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Reflecting the broad and interdisciplinary nature of toxicology, this third edition of Principles of Toxicology explores the biochemical, physiological, and environmental aspects of the subject.

This new edition is updated and revised to include reference to several major new directions in the science of toxicology, including significant changes in thinking about cancer and carcinogenesis as well as the rapid expansion of toxicogenomics. The book also includes new chapters on topics of timely interest such as radiation, food safety, and natural toxins.

As in previous editions, chapters combine background material in the appropriate discipline—which helps readers review and remember the basics—with new information on toxicology to stress key principles and concepts. Also included is a selection of updated case studies through which principles and concepts are applied to real-world issues.

The book features an extensive cross-referencing system linking all sections and enhancing the integration of material, thus helping readers tie it all together. It also includes an appendix of selected toxicants that describes chemical structure, category of use, and toxicity. These features make specific information quick and easy to find. The easy-to-follow format and clear presentation of information in this book will make this one of the most useful references on your shelf.


"Well-targeted by the authors for the intended purpose. Online access to material is employed where appropriate… Where relevant the text includes historical examples to assist or amplify the subject matter… One of the strengths of the book is the considerable cross referencing which provides useful assistance to the user to fully understand the wider ramifications of what might at first sight appear relatively isolated or limited problems. Furthermore the case-studies achieve exactly what they are intended to do, namely highlight the important points and place them in a context which is relevant and illustrative" - (Highly Commended, Public Health, BMA Medical Book Awards 2016)

Table of Contents

Measuring Toxicity and Assessing Risk


Chemistry of Toxicants

Toxicity Testing Methods

Factors to be Considered in Planning Toxicity Testing

The LD50 (Median Lethal Dose) Experiment

No Observed Adverse Effect Levels


Toxicity, Hazard, and Risk

Case Study: Risk, Perception, and Vaccination







Toxicokinetic Models

Contrasting Kinetics of Lipophilic Substances




Primary Biotransformation (Phase I Reactions): Hydrolysis

Primary Biotransformation (Phase I Reactions): Oxidation

Primary Biotransformation (Phase I Reactions): Reduction

Secondary Metabolism (Phase II Reactions)

Factors that Influence Metabolism


Cellular Sites of Action


Interaction of Toxicants with Proteins

Effects of Toxicants on Lipids

Effects of Toxicants on Nucleic Acids

Mechanisms of Cell Death

Case Study: Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors


Genomics and New Genetics in Toxicology


The Human Genome Project



Personalized Susceptibility and Tailored Therapeutics

Race, Ethics, and Genomics

Systems Toxicology

Case Study: Using GenBank and Online Tools in Genomics




The Epidemiology of Cancer


Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes

Chemical Carcinogens: Initiation

Chemical Carcinogens: Promotion

Protection against the Development of Cancer

Testing Compounds for Carcinogenicity

Critiques of Strategies in Cancer Research

Carcinogenesis: A Complex Process

Case Study: Predicting Carcinogenesis Based upon

Chemistry (QSAR)


Reproductive Toxicology and Teratology


Basic Processes in Reproduction and Development: Cell Division

The Male Reproductive System

The Female Reproductive System

The Effects of Toxicants on the Male and Female Reproductive Systems

The Process of Development

Embryogenesis and Developmental Genetics

Effects of Toxicants on Development: Teratogens and


Testing for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity

Case Study: Thalidomide


Respiratory Toxicology

Function of the Respiratory System

Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System

Pulmonary Ventilation

Effects of Toxicants on the Respiratory System: General Principles

Defense Mechanisms of the Respiratory System

Exposure to Respiratory Toxicants

Immediate Responses to Respiratory Toxicants: Mechanisms

Immediate Responses to Respiratory Toxicants: Effects on

Upper and Lower Airways

Delayed and Cumulative Responses to Respiratory Toxicants

Inhalation Studies

Case study: Nanoparticles


Cardiovascular Toxicology

Function of the Cardiovascular System

Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart

Effects of Toxicants on the Heart

The Vascular System

Effects of Toxicants on the Vascular System

The Blood

Effects of Toxicants on the Blood

Effects of Toxicants on Platelets and Coagulation



Function of the Nervous System

Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System

Effects of Toxicants on the Nervous System: General Principles

Effects of Toxicants on the Nervous System: General Categories

Effects of Toxicants on Electrical Conduction

Effects of Toxicants on Synaptic Function



Effects of Toxicants Directly on Neurons and Glial Cells

Other Neurotoxicants

Effects on Special Sensory Organs

Developmental Effects

Methods in Neurotoxicology

Case Study: Botulinum Toxin


Hepatic Toxicology

Anatomy and Physiology of the Liver

Function of the Liver

Types of Toxicant-Induced Liver Injury

Response to Liver Injury

Evaluating Liver Injury and Treating Disease

Case Study: Reye’s Syndrome


Renal Toxicology

Function of the Kidneys

Anatomy and Physiology of the Kidneys

Effects of Toxicants on the Kidney: General Principles

Damage to the Glomerulus

Damage to the Proximal Tubule

The Remainder of the Tubule

Measurement of Kidney Function In Vivo

Measurement of Kidney Function In Vitro

Compensation following Renal Damage



Function of the Immune System

Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms

Specific Defense Mechanisms

Effects of Toxicants on the Immune System

Methods for Studying Immunotoxicity


Ecological Toxicology


Effects of Toxicants at the Population Level

Effects of Toxicants at the Community Level

Effects of Toxicants at the Ecosystem Level

Examples of Ecosystems and Vulnerability to Impact by Toxicants

Case Study: Plastic Debris in the Marine Environment

Climate Change and Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicological Testing Methods


Applications: Pharmacology and Toxicology

Basic Principles of Pharmacology

Drug Development and the Role of Toxicology

Preclinical Studies

Clinical Studies

Generic Drugs

Toxicogenomics and Drug Safety

The Return of Natural Products: Regulatory Issues


Applications: Forensic Toxicology

Analytical Toxicology

Forensic Toxicology and Alcohol Use

Forensic Toxicology and Illegal Drug Use

Criminal Poisonings


Applications: Environmental Toxicology and Pollution

Air Pollution

Water Pollution

Toxic Wastes

Case Study: Pharmaceuticals in the Water Supply


Applications: Radiation

Basic Types of Radiation

Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Biological Tissues

Sources of Ionizing Radiation

Physiological Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

Nonionizing Radiation

Radiation Safety

Case Study: Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima


Applications: Food Safety

Food Additives

Chemical Contaminants in Foods

Transgenic Foods

Regulations and Regulatory Agencies


Applications: Toxins


Bacterial Toxins

Protist Toxins

Fungal Toxins

Plant Toxins

Animal Toxins


Appendix: List of Selected Toxicants


About the Authors

Karen E. Stine, PhD, is a professor of Biology and former dean of the School of Sciences at Auburn University at Montgomery in Alabama, USA. She has also served as the director of the undergraduate toxicology program at Ashland University in Ohio. She earned her PhD in toxicology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Stine is a member of the Society of Toxicology and the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. At Clemson University, Dr. Stine co-developed and co-taught a Principles of Toxicology course that was open to both undergraduate and graduate students. Her research interests are in the area of mechanisms of toxicity and focus on the role of stress proteins in cellular function and dysfunction. Dr. Stine has also authored or co-authored several research publications in the field of toxicology.

Thomas Miller Brown, PhD, is president of Genectar Com LLC in Whitefish, Montana, USA which conducts research in toxicology, genetics, and genomics, now focusing on pigment cell development in the common wood nymph butterfly as a melanoma model. He earned his PhD from Michigan State University. Formerly a professor, Dr. Brown taught Toxicology of Insecticides, Principles of Toxicology, and Insect Biotechnology. He also led the discovery of an actively transposing short interspersed nuclear element (Insect Science 16:219–226). He has published papers on the biochemical toxicology of organophosphorus compounds and on the mechanisms of insecticide resistance in insects. Dr. Brown has also conducted research at Nagoya University and Tsukuba Science City in Japan.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Pharmacology
MEDICAL / Toxicology
SCIENCE / Environmental Science