455 Pages 144 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Reflecting the broad and interdisciplinary nature of toxicology, this third edition of Principles of Toxicology explores the biochemical, physiological, and environmental aspects of the subject.

    This new edition is updated and revised to include reference to several major new directions in the science of toxicology, including significant changes in thinking about cancer and carcinogenesis as well as the rapid expansion of toxicogenomics. The book also includes new chapters on topics of timely interest such as radiation, food safety, and natural toxins.

    As in previous editions, chapters combine background material in the appropriate discipline—which helps readers review and remember the basics—with new information on toxicology to stress key principles and concepts. Also included is a selection of updated case studies through which principles and concepts are applied to real-world issues.

    The book features an extensive cross-referencing system linking all sections and enhancing the integration of material, thus helping readers tie it all together. It also includes an appendix of selected toxicants that describes chemical structure, category of use, and toxicity. These features make specific information quick and easy to find. The easy-to-follow format and clear presentation of information in this book will make this one of the most useful references on your shelf.

    Measuring Toxicity and Assessing Risk
    Chemistry of Toxicants
    Toxicity Testing Methods
    Factors to be Considered in Planning Toxicity Testing
    The LD50 (Median Lethal Dose) Experiment
    No Observed Adverse Effect Levels
    Toxicity, Hazard, and Risk
    Case Study: Risk, Perception, and Vaccination

    Toxicokinetic Models
    Contrasting Kinetics of Lipophilic Substances

    Primary Biotransformation (Phase I Reactions): Hydrolysis
    Primary Biotransformation (Phase I Reactions): Oxidation
    Primary Biotransformation (Phase I Reactions): Reduction
    Secondary Metabolism (Phase II Reactions)
    Factors that Influence Metabolism

    Cellular Sites of Action
    Interaction of Toxicants with Proteins
    Effects of Toxicants on Lipids
    Effects of Toxicants on Nucleic Acids
    Mechanisms of Cell Death
    Case Study: Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors

    Genomics and New Genetics in Toxicology
    The Human Genome Project
    Personalized Susceptibility and Tailored Therapeutics
    Race, Ethics, and Genomics
    Systems Toxicology
    Case Study: Using GenBank and Online Tools in Genomics

    The Epidemiology of Cancer
    Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes
    Chemical Carcinogens: Initiation
    Chemical Carcinogens: Promotion
    Protection against the Development of Cancer
    Testing Compounds for Carcinogenicity
    Critiques of Strategies in Cancer Research
    Carcinogenesis: A Complex Process
    Case Study: Predicting Carcinogenesis Based upon
    Chemistry (QSAR)

    Reproductive Toxicology and Teratology
    Basic Processes in Reproduction and Development: Cell Division
    The Male Reproductive System
    The Female Reproductive System
    The Effects of Toxicants on the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
    The Process of Development
    Embryogenesis and Developmental Genetics
    Effects of Toxicants on Development: Teratogens and
    Testing for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
    Case Study: Thalidomide

    Respiratory Toxicology
    Function of the Respiratory System
    Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System
    Pulmonary Ventilation
    Effects of Toxicants on the Respiratory System: General Principles
    Defense Mechanisms of the Respiratory System
    Exposure to Respiratory Toxicants
    Immediate Responses to Respiratory Toxicants: Mechanisms
    Immediate Responses to Respiratory Toxicants: Effects on
    Upper and Lower Airways
    Delayed and Cumulative Responses to Respiratory Toxicants
    Inhalation Studies
    Case study: Nanoparticles

    Cardiovascular Toxicology
    Function of the Cardiovascular System
    Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart
    Effects of Toxicants on the Heart
    The Vascular System
    Effects of Toxicants on the Vascular System
    The Blood
    Effects of Toxicants on the Blood
    Effects of Toxicants on Platelets and Coagulation

    Function of the Nervous System
    Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System
    Effects of Toxicants on the Nervous System: General Principles
    Effects of Toxicants on the Nervous System: General Categories
    Effects of Toxicants on Electrical Conduction
    Effects of Toxicants on Synaptic Function
    Effects of Toxicants Directly on Neurons and Glial Cells
    Other Neurotoxicants
    Effects on Special Sensory Organs
    Developmental Effects
    Methods in Neurotoxicology
    Case Study: Botulinum Toxin

    Hepatic Toxicology
    Anatomy and Physiology of the Liver
    Function of the Liver
    Types of Toxicant-Induced Liver Injury
    Response to Liver Injury
    Evaluating Liver Injury and Treating Disease
    Case Study: Reye’s Syndrome

    Renal Toxicology
    Function of the Kidneys
    Anatomy and Physiology of the Kidneys
    Effects of Toxicants on the Kidney: General Principles
    Damage to the Glomerulus
    Damage to the Proximal Tubule
    The Remainder of the Tubule
    Measurement of Kidney Function In Vivo
    Measurement of Kidney Function In Vitro
    Compensation following Renal Damage

    Function of the Immune System
    Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms
    Specific Defense Mechanisms
    Effects of Toxicants on the Immune System
    Methods for Studying Immunotoxicity

    Ecological Toxicology
    Effects of Toxicants at the Population Level
    Effects of Toxicants at the Community Level
    Effects of Toxicants at the Ecosystem Level
    Examples of Ecosystems and Vulnerability to Impact by Toxicants
    Case Study: Plastic Debris in the Marine Environment
    Climate Change and Ecotoxicology
    Ecotoxicological Testing Methods

    Applications: Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Basic Principles of Pharmacology
    Drug Development and the Role of Toxicology
    Preclinical Studies
    Clinical Studies
    Generic Drugs
    Toxicogenomics and Drug Safety
    The Return of Natural Products: Regulatory Issues

    Applications: Forensic Toxicology
    Analytical Toxicology
    Forensic Toxicology and Alcohol Use
    Forensic Toxicology and Illegal Drug Use
    Criminal Poisonings

    Applications: Environmental Toxicology and Pollution
    Air Pollution
    Water Pollution
    Toxic Wastes
    Case Study: Pharmaceuticals in the Water Supply

    Applications: Radiation
    Basic Types of Radiation
    Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Biological Tissues
    Sources of Ionizing Radiation
    Physiological Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
    Nonionizing Radiation
    Radiation Safety
    Case Study: Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima

    Applications: Food Safety
    Food Additives
    Chemical Contaminants in Foods
    Transgenic Foods
    Regulations and Regulatory Agencies

    Applications: Toxins
    Bacterial Toxins
    Protist Toxins
    Fungal Toxins
    Plant Toxins
    Animal Toxins

    Appendix: List of Selected Toxicants



    Karen E. Stine, PhD, is a professor of Biology and former dean of the School of Sciences at Auburn University at Montgomery in Alabama, USA. She has also served as the director of the undergraduate toxicology program at Ashland University in Ohio. She earned her PhD in toxicology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Stine is a member of the Society of Toxicology and the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. At Clemson University, Dr. Stine co-developed and co-taught a Principles of Toxicology course that was open to both undergraduate and graduate students. Her research interests are in the area of mechanisms of toxicity and focus on the role of stress proteins in cellular function and dysfunction. Dr. Stine has also authored or co-authored several research publications in the field of toxicology.

    Thomas Miller Brown, PhD, is president of Genectar Com LLC in Whitefish, Montana, USA which conducts research in toxicology, genetics, and genomics, now focusing on pigment cell development in the common wood nymph butterfly as a melanoma model. He earned his PhD from Michigan State University. Formerly a professor, Dr. Brown taught Toxicology of Insecticides, Principles of Toxicology, and Insect Biotechnology. He also led the discovery of an actively transposing short interspersed nuclear element (Insect Science 16:219–226). He has published papers on the biochemical toxicology of organophosphorus compounds and on the mechanisms of insecticide resistance in insects. Dr. Brown has also conducted research at Nagoya University and Tsukuba Science City in Japan.

    "Well-targeted by the authors for the intended purpose. Online access to material is employed where appropriate… Where relevant the text includes historical examples to assist or amplify the subject matter… One of the strengths of the book is the considerable cross referencing which provides useful assistance to the user to fully understand the wider ramifications of what might at first sight appear relatively isolated or limited problems. Furthermore the case-studies achieve exactly what they are intended to do, namely highlight the important points and place them in a context which is relevant and illustrative" - (Highly Commended, Public Health, BMA Medical Book Awards 2016)