This book examines the legitimation of Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs), focusing on the controversy between PMSCs and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).
While existing studies disproportionately emphasise the ability for companies and their clients to dominate and shape perceptions of the industry, this book offers an alternative explanation for the oft-cited normalization of PMSCs and the trend to privatise security by analysing the changing relationship between PMSCs and NGOs. It uses the concept of ‘norm entrepreneurship’ to elucidate the legitimation game between these two dissimilar actors. Starting from the 1990s, the book shows that the relationship between PMSCs and NGOs has undergone a transition by literally moving from ‘the barricades to the boardrooms’. After years of fierce advocacy and PR campaigns against PMSCs, today both actors increasingly collaborate in multi-stakeholder initiatives, elevating the status of PMSCs from a scorned actor to a trusted partner in the regulation of the industry. The work offers a comprehensive explanation of when and why this kind of collective norm entrepreneurship is likely to occur.
This book will be of interest to students of private military and security companies, critical security studies, global governance, international norms, and International Relations.
1 Introduction; 2 PMSC-NGO Interactions, Legitimation, and Norm Entrepreneurship; 3 The ‘First’ PMSCs: Just Warriors or Just Mercenaries?; 4 NGO Discourse – The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly; 5 Business Discourse: (Re)Framing PMSCs; 6 Norm Entrepreneurship in the Swiss Initiative: From Accounts to Accountability; 7 Norm Entrepreneurship in the International Code of Conduct and the International Code of Conduct Association; 8 Explaining Norm Entrepreneurship in Multi-Stakeholder Initiatives; 9 Conclusion
The series will publish books in the area of Private Security Studies, broadly defined. It invites research publications contributing to and advancing existing research agendas and is particularly eager to welcome research doing this through diverse theoretical and disciplinary perspectives, as well as interdisciplinary work.
Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa
Deborah Avant, Denver University
Navita Behera, Univeristy of Delhi
Pinar Bilgin, Bilkent University
Christian Bueger, Cardiff University
Deborah Cowen, University of Toronto
Marieke de Goede, Free University, Amsterdam
Rebecca de Winter-Schmitt, American University/ Amnesty International
Mervin Frost, King's College London
Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, Roul Wallenberg Institute
Ben Goold, University of British Columbia
Monica Herz, PUC Rio de Janeiro
Aida Hozic, Florida University
Christopher Kinsey, King's College London
Keith Krause, Institut d'Hautes Etudes en Relations Internationales, Geneva
Mark Laffey, School of African and Oriental Studies
Ian Loader, Oxford University
Roxanne Lynn-Doty, University of Arizona
James Pattison, University of Manchester
Sarah Percy, University of Western Australia
Clifford Shearing, Griffith University
Christopher Spearin, Canadian Forces College
Maria Stern, Göteborgs Universitet
Nigel White, University of Nottingham
Klaus Dieter Wolf, Peace Research Institute Frankfurt
Kirstie Ball, University of St Andrews