Private Security and the Investigative Process, Fourth Edition  book cover
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4th Edition

Private Security and the Investigative Process, Fourth Edition




ISBN 9781138489646
Published September 11, 2019 by CRC Press
416 Pages

 
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Book Description

Private Security and the Investigative Process, Fourth Edition is fully updated and continues to provide complete coverage of the investigative process for private investigations by both individuals and in corporate security environments. This edition covers emerging technology, revised legal and practical considerations for conducting interviews, and new information on case evaluation.

Written by a recognized expert in security, criminal justice, ethics, and the law—with over three decades of experience—the updated edition of this popular text covers concepts and techniques that can be applied to a variety of investigations including fraud, insurance, private, and criminal. It details the collection and preservation of evidence, the handling of witnesses, surveillance techniques, background investigations, and report writing. The book reflects best practices and includes tips for ensuring accurate and reliable private sector security investigations. This new edition includes:

  • A new section on career opportunities in paths in the investigative field
  • A rundown of the leading security Industry associations and professional standards being published
  • Added discussion of observational interviews include current protocols analyzing data
  • Details of the current legal implications for security surveillance and practices
  • Advances in technology to thwart crime and fraud in retail and other business settings
  • An entirely new section on e-records from criminal and civil judgments

Authoritative, yet accessible, this book is one of the only textbooks dedicated to the subject. It also serves as an important reference for private investigators and security professionals. Complete with numerous forms, checklists, and web exercises, it provides the tools and understanding required to conduct investigations that are professional, ethical, and effective.

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface............................................................................................................................................ xiii

Acknowledgments.............................................................................................................................xv

Author Bio.......................................................................................................................................xvii

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Private Security Industry and the Investigative Process................1

1.1 The Private Security Industry: Overview and Context......................................1

1.1.1 The Contemporary State of Private Security........................................1

1.1.2 Classifications and Functions of the Private Security Industry............3

1.2 The Private Security Industry and Privatization................................................4

1.3 The Role of Private Security and the Investigative Process............................. 11

1.3.1 Investigative Activities Commonly Encountered by

Private Security................................................................................... 14

1.4 Conclusion and Final Thoughts........................................................................ 17

Notes............................................................................................................................ 19

Chapter 2 General Characteristics of a Competent Investigator..................................................23

2.1 Introduction......................................................................................................23

2.2 A Private versus Public Mentality....................................................................23

2.2.1 Objectivity and Investigative Practice.................................................26

2.2.2 Logic and Investigative Practice.........................................................27

2.2.3 Perseverance, Diligence, and Investigative Practice...........................29

2.3 Human Relations Skills and Investigative Practice.......................................... 31

2.4 Ethics and the Investigative Process................................................................ 33

Notes............................................................................................................................ 43

Chapter 3 Interview and Case Evaluation.................................................................................... 47

3.1 Introduction: The Interview and the Investigator............................................. 47

3.2 Initial Interview................................................................................................48

3.2.1 Initial Interview: Administrative Requirements.................................49

3.2.1.1 Authorization and Release...................................................50

3.2.1.2 Interview Information or Fact Sheets.................................. 51

3.2.1.3 Follow-Up Letter................................................................. 71

3.2.2 Recording Interview Impressions....................................................... 74

3.3 Case Evaluation and Subsequent Interviews.................................................... 75

Notes............................................................................................................................ 79

Chapter 4 Witness Testimony and Evidence in the Private Security Industry............................ 81

4.1 The Purpose of Witnesses................................................................................ 81

4.2 Types of Witnesses...........................................................................................82

4.2.1 Missing or Unknown Witnesses..........................................................82

4.2.2 Lay Witnesses......................................................................................83

4.2.3 Expert Witnesses.................................................................................85

4.2.3.1 Qualifications of the Expert.................................................85

4.2.3.2 Sources of Expert Witnesses...............................................93

4.2.3.3 Expert Service Contracts.....................................................94

4.2.4 Character Witnesses............................................................................96

4.3 Processing Witnesses.......................................................................................96

4.4 Conclusion........................................................................................................99

Notes............................................................................................................................99

Chapter 5 Collection of Information.......................................................................................... 103

5.1 The Nature of Information and the Rules of Collection................................ 103

5.2 Leads and Contacts for the Private Investigator............................................. 106

5.3 Public Sources of Information........................................................................ 108

5.3.1 Federal Agencies............................................................................... 110

5.3.2 State and Local Agencies.................................................................. 111

5.4 Private Sources of Information...................................................................... 113

5.4.1 Directories, Databases, and Atlases.................................................. 113

5.4.1.1 Business Databases............................................................ 115

5.4.1.2 Miscellaneous Databases................................................... 115

5.4.2 Libraries............................................................................................ 116

5.4.3 Newspapers....................................................................................... 117

5.4.4 The Internet and Web-Based Searches............................................. 118

5.4.4.1 Social Media Searches....................................................... 118

5.4.5 Professional Associations and Groups.............................................. 118

5.4.6 Auto Records..................................................................................... 119

5.5 The Background Investigation........................................................................ 119

5.6 Real Property Title Search............................................................................. 122

5.7 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 125

Notes.......................................................................................................................... 125

Chapter 6 Collection of Evidence and Preservation of the Scene............................................. 129

6.1 Investigative Technique: Initial Scene Visitation........................................... 129

6.2 Investigative Technique: Preliminary Evidence Collection Strategies.......... 133

6.3 Investigative Technique: Scene Sketches and Other Graphic Portrayals....... 144

6.3.1 Rules for Sketching........................................................................... 144

6.3.2 Rules for Measuring.......................................................................... 147

6.4 Investigative Technique: Photographic Evidence........................................... 148

6.4.1 Location of Crime Scene................................................................... 150

6.4.2 Photography and Special Applications............................................. 150

6.4.2.1 Vehicular Accidents and Related Auto Claims................. 150

6.4.2.2 Bodily Injuries and Photographic Method........................ 154

6.4.2.3 Arson/Insurance Fraud and Photographic Evidence......... 156

6.4.2.4 Burglary/Criminal Trespass/Forcible Theft and

Photographic Evidence...................................................... 156

6.4.2.5 Drug and Alcohol Abuse and Photographic Evidence...... 157

6.5 Investigative Technique: Documentary Evidence.......................................... 159

6.5.1 Police Records................................................................................... 159

6.5.1.1 Alcohol or Chemical Reports............................................ 159

6.5.1.2 Accident Reports............................................................... 159

6.5.1.3 Domestic Relations Documentation.................................. 159

6.5.1.4 Radio Logs......................................................................... 159

6.5.1.5 Arrest Reports—Narcotics................................................ 159

6.5.1.6 Violence in the Workplace................................................. 159

6.5.1.7 Missing Person Reports..................................................... 163

6.5.1.8 Disposition Sheets.............................................................. 163

6.5.1.9 Suspect Descriptions.......................................................... 163

6.6 Investigative Technique: Medical Records..................................................... 167

6.7 Investigative Technique: Records Involving Economic Damages................. 173

6.8 Investigative Technique: Preservation of Evidence........................................ 175

6.9 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 182

Notes.......................................................................................................................... 183

Chapter 7 Surveillance Techniques........................................................................................... 187

7.1 Purposes and Functions.................................................................................. 187

7.2 Tactics and Strategy in Surveillance.............................................................. 189

7.2.1 What Are the Steps of Surveillance?................................................ 189

7.2.2 The Precise Objective of Surveillance.............................................. 191

7.2.3 The Location of Surveillance............................................................ 192

7.2.4 Time of Surveillance......................................................................... 192

7.2.5 The Subject or Target of Surveillance............................................... 192

7.3 Surveillance: Preparatory Steps..................................................................... 194

7.3.1 Personal Behavior and Attire............................................................ 194

7.3.2 Surveillance Equipment.................................................................... 194

7.3.2.1 CCTV Equipment.............................................................. 195

7.3.2.2 Photographic/Video Equipment........................................ 197

7.4 Types of Surveillance.....................................................................................200

7.4.1 Stationary Surveillance..................................................................... 201

7.4.2 Moving Surveillance......................................................................... 201

7.4.2.1 Foot Surveillance............................................................... 201

7.4.2.2 Auto Surveillance..............................................................204

7.4.3 Hybrid and Other Special Surveillance Techniques......................... 212

7.4.3.1 Foot and Auto Surveillance............................................... 212

7.4.3.2 Surveillance at Bus Stops.................................................. 213

7.4.3.3 Use of Pretext..................................................................... 213

7.5 Surveillance Forms and Reports.................................................................... 216

7.6 Conclusion......................................................................................................220

Notes.......................................................................................................................... 221

Chapter 8 Report Writing...........................................................................................................223

8.1 Introduction....................................................................................................223

8.1.1 Report Writing Promotes Efficiency in the Investigative Process.......223

8.1.2 Reports and Memory.........................................................................224

8.1.3 Investigative Reports and Organizational Method............................224

8.1.4 Investigative Reports as Proof of Services Rendered.......................225

8.2 Investigative Report Writing: Standards for Authorship................................225

8.2.1 Investigative Field Notes: A Preliminary Step..................................226

8.2.2 The Essential Qualities of an Investigative Report:

Accurate, Brief, and Complete..........................................................227

8.2.3 Investigative Report Design..............................................................229

8.3 Standard Reports for the Private Investigator................................................ 231

8.3.1 Investigative Activity Reports........................................................... 232

8.3.1.1 Daily Reports..................................................................... 232

8.3.1.2 Review Reports.................................................................. 232

8.3.1.3 Patrol and Observation Reports......................................... 232

8.3.1.4 Surveillance Reports.......................................................... 232

8.3.1.5 Missing Person Reports..................................................... 232

8.3.1.6 Undercover Investigation Reports.....................................238

8.3.1.7 Bomb Search Reports........................................................238

8.3.1.8 Inspection Reports.............................................................238

8.3.1.9 Security Incident Reports.................................................. 239

8.3.1.10 Investigative Reports......................................................... 239

8.3.1.11 Traffic Reports...................................................................248

8.3.1.12 Property Reports................................................................248

8.3.1.13 Basic Security Survey........................................................249

8.3.2 Major Criminal Documentation........................................................ 253

8.3.2.1 The Offense Report........................................................... 253

8.3.2.2 Arrest Report.....................................................................254

8.3.2.3 Defendant’s Statement.......................................................254

8.4 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 259

Notes.......................................................................................................................... 259

Chapter 9 Investigative Method and Technique: Theft/Property Offenses............................... 261

9.1 Introduction.................................................................................................... 261

9.2 Shoplifting and Retail Theft...........................................................................264

9.2.1 Rationalizations and Justifications for Shoplifting and

Retail Theft.......................................................................................264

9.2.2 Shoplifting Methods..........................................................................265

9.2.3 Shoplifting Identification................................................................... 267

9.2.4 Shoplifting Investigation...................................................................268

9.3 Internal Theft by Employees..........................................................................269

9.3.1 Reasons and Rationales for Internal Theft........................................ 270

9.3.2 Theft Strategies................................................................................. 271

9.3.3 Investigating Theft............................................................................ 272

9.3.4 Obtaining Confessions or Statements............................................... 273

9.4 Burglary and the Private Investigator............................................................. 275

9.5 Defensive Techniques to Minimize Property Losses from

Theft and Burglary.........................................................................................282

9.5.1 Tactics and Strategies........................................................................282

9.5.1.1 Site Security Surveys and Their Application....................282

9.5.1.2 Determining Organizational Characteristics.....................282

9.5.1.3 Theft Tests.........................................................................282

9.6 Missing or Stolen Property............................................................................. 291

9.7 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 295

Notes..........................................................................................................................295

Chapter 10 Investigative Method and Technique: Insurance Cases............................................299

10.1 Introduction....................................................................................................299

10.2 Investigative Application and Method in Specific Cases...............................300

10.2.1 Insurance Property Claims in Fire and Arson..................................300

10.2.2 Workers’ Compensation....................................................................309

10.2.3 Disability Claims.............................................................................. 316

10.2.4 Auto Liability Claims........................................................................ 317

10.2.4.1 Policy Declaration............................................................. 318

10.2.4.2 Processing the Auto Liability Case................................... 320

10.3 Special Problems: Auto Theft, Fraud, and Parts Pilferage............................ 328

10.3.1 Auto Identification Systems.............................................................. 331

10.3.1.1 VIN Systems...................................................................... 331

10.3.1.2 Parts................................................................................... 332

10.4 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 333

Notes.......................................................................................................................... 333

Chapter 11 Investigative Method and Technique: Background Investigations............................ 337

11.1 Introduction.................................................................................................... 337

11.2 Background Investigation Basics.................................................................... 339

11.3 Background Issues.......................................................................................... 342

11.3.1 Establishing Identity..........................................................................344

11.3.2 Employment History......................................................................... 350

11.3.3 Credit History.................................................................................... 354

11.4 Alternative Methods of Background Review.................................................365

11.4.1 References.........................................................................................365

11.4.2 Consultative Services........................................................................368

11.4.3 The Polygraph Test............................................................................369

11.5 Comprehensive Background Report...............................................................369

11.6 Conclusion...................................................................................................... 375

Notes.......................................................................................................................... 375

Chapter 12 The Security Office: Administrative Issues.............................................................. 379

12.1 Some General Principles of Office Administration....................................... 379

12.2 Timekeeping Methods.................................................................................... 381

12.3 The Value of Administrative Documents....................................................... 382

12.3.1 Software Considerations................................................................... 385

12.4 Filing Systems................................................................................................ 388

12.4.1 Setup and Maintenance..................................................................... 388

12.4.2 Tickler Files.......................................................................................390

12.4.3 Software Considerations................................................................... 392

12.5 Billing............................................................................................................. 392

12.5.1 Software Considerations...................................................................404

12.6 Conclusion......................................................................................................407

Notes..........................................................................................................................407

Index...............................................................................................................................................409

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Author(s)

Biography

Charles P. Nemeth, Chair and Professor in the Department of Protection Management at John Jay College since 2011, has spent the vast majority of his professional life in the study and practice of law and justice. A recognized expert on ethics and the legal system, appellate legal practice and private-sector justice, he also is a prolific writer, having published numerous texts and articles on law and justice throughout his impressive career. His most recent work includes three titles: Criminal Law (Prentice Hall, 2003), Law & Evidence: A Primer for Criminal Justice, Criminology, Law, and Legal Studies (Prentice Hall, 2001) and Aquinas in the Courtroom (Greenwood and Praeger Publishing, 2001). Dr. Nemeth is a recognized scholar in the world of private security. His Private Security and the Law, third edition (Butterworth/Elsevier 2005) is regarded as a treatise on the subject. In addition, his Private Security and Investigative Process (Butterworth/Elsevier 1999) is deemed required reading for security practitioners.

An educator for more than 30 years, Nemeth's distinctive career in criminal justice is founded on an exemplary education, including a Master of Laws from George Washington University, a Juris Doctor from the University of Baltimore, and a Master of Arts and Ph.D. from Duquesne University. In addition, he was awarded a M.S. from Niagara University and received an undergraduate degree from the University of Delaware. He holds memberships in the New York, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania Bars.

At John Jay University, Dr. Nemeth is Chair and Professor in the Department of Protection Management as well as Director, Center for Private Security and Safety. His previous academic appointments include Niagara University (1977-1980), the University of Baltimore (1980-1981), Glassboro State College (1981-1986), Waynesburg College (1988-1998), and the State University of New York at Brockport (1998-2003), California University – Pittsburgh (2003-2011).