2nd Edition

Process Plants A Handbook for Inherently Safer Design, Second Edition

By Trevor A. Kletz, Paul Amyotte Copyright 2010
    384 Pages 97 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    How far will an ounce of prevention really go? While the answer to that question may never be truly known, Process Plants: A Handbook for Inherently Safer Design, Second Edition takes us several steps closer. The book demonstrates not just the importance of prevention, but the importance of designing with prevention in mind. It emphasizes the role of inherent safety in process safety management systems and in ensuring an appropriate process safety culture. Keeping the easy to understand style that made the first edition so popular, this book clearly delineates practical, everyday issues and complex technical ones.

    The second edition provides:

    • Coverage of new inherent safety metrics and how to measure the degree or level of inherent safety
    • New examples of application of the various principles of inherently safer design and 20 new figures
    • New emphasis on the role of inherently safer design in process safety management systems and in ensuring an appropriate process safety culture
    • Discussion of dust explosion risk reduction by means of inherently safer approaches
    • New chapter on case study development, providing a comprehensive approach to the prevention and mitigation of process incidents by timely incorporation of inherently safer design

    This updated version of a classic text examines how to incorporate inherently safer design into process industry activities, revising and updating information based on recent research and developments. A how-to resource at its core, the book includes numerous examples that illustrate the principles of inherently safer design and how to apply them in practice. It explains how to measure the inherent safeness of a process, referencing metric tools that have been developed during the past decade and the tried and true methods that have become industry stand bys.

    Introduction: What are Inherently Safer and User-Friendly Plants?
    Inherently Safer and Friendlier Design as Part of an Overall Approach
    Hierarchy of Controls
    Inherently Safer Design: The Concept and Its Scope and Benefits
    The Concept
    Defense in Depth
    The Scope
    The Benefits of Inherently Safer Design
    Appendix: The Lady and the Tiger—A New Version of an Old Tale
    References and Notes
    Process Intensification
    Heat Transfer
    Other Unit Operations
    Intensification by Detailed Design
    Many Small Plants or One Big One?
    Some Thoughts on Intensification as Minimization
    Appendix: Conference Report—New Technology
    References and Notes
    The Use of Safer Nonreactive Agents
    Choosing Less Hazardous Processes
    References and Notes
    Attenuated Reactions
    Attenuated Storage and Transport
    A Railway Analogy
    References and Notes
    Limitation of Effects
    Limitation of Effects by Equipment Design
    Limitation of Effects by Changing Reaction Conditions
    Elimination of Hazards
    References and Notes
    The Reasons for Complexity
    Stronger Equipment Can Replace Relief Systems
    Resistant Materials of Construction Can Replace Protective Instruments
    Designs Free from Opportunities for Human Error
    Design Change Can Avoid the Need for Better Instrumentation
    Relocation Can Avoid the Need for Complication
    Simple Technology Can Replace High Technology
    Leaving Things Out
    Power Fluidics: Avoiding Moving Parts
    Other Examples of Simplification
    Modification Chains
    References and Notes
    Simplification: Specifications and Flexibility
    Following Rules to the Letter
    Asking for Too Much Flexibility
    Three Problems
    Appendix: Some Comments on Simplification
    Other Ways of Making Plants Friendlier
    Avoiding Knock-On Effects
    Making Incorrect Assembly Impossible
    Making Status Clear
    Tolerance of Misuse
    Ease of Control
    Computer Control
    Instructions and Other Procedures
    Life-Cycle Friendliness
    Other Industries
    Passive Safety
    References and Notes
    The Road to Friendlier Plants
    Constraints on the Development of Friendlier Plants
    The Action Needed
    The Influence of the Law
    The Measurement of Friendliness
    Looking for New Knowledge
    The Final Decision
    Inherently Safer Design Offshore: A Case History
    Appendix: Finding Examples of Inherently Safer Design
    References and Notes
    Inherently Safer Design and Process-Safety Management
    Safety Management Systems
    Process-Safety Management System Elements
    Safety Culture
    References and Notes
    Friendlier Plants and the Nuclear Industry
    New Types of Reactor
    Features of Nuclear Plants
    The Role of Inherently Safer Design in Dust Explosion Prevention and Mitigation
    Dust Explosion Overview
    Use of the Hierarchy of Controls
    Other Examples
    Summary of Prevention and Mitigation Measures
    Concluding Remarks
    Inherent-Safety Case Studies
    Everyday Life Experiences
    Newspapers and Magazines
    Topical Conferences
    Technical Papers
    Process-Safety Books
    Case Study Books
    Other Inherent-Safety Books
    Books from Other Industries and Applications
    Training Packages
    Trade Literature
    Loss Prevention Bulletins
    Chemical Safety Board Reports
    Concluding Remarks
    Do We Go Too Far in Removing Risk?
    Risks to Output and Efficiency
    Risks to Life and Limb
    The Contribution of the Operator
    The History and Future of Inherently Safer and User-Friendly Design
    The Start of the Story
    The Idea Develops
    Extensions of the Idea
    A True Story (except for the Names): August 2009
    A Final Thought
    References and Notes
    Further Reading
    Index to First Edition
    Appendix A: An Atlas of Safety Thinking


    Kletz, Trevor A.; Amyotte, Paul