Process Plants: A Handbook for Inherently Safer Design, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Process Plants

A Handbook for Inherently Safer Design, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Trevor A. Kletz, Paul Amyotte

CRC Press

384 pages | 97 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2010-05-17
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How far will an ounce of prevention really go? While the answer to that question may never be truly known, Process Plants: A Handbook for Inherently Safer Design, Second Edition takes us several steps closer. The book demonstrates not just the importance of prevention, but the importance of designing with prevention in mind. It emphasizes the role of inherent safety in process safety management systems and in ensuring an appropriate process safety culture. Keeping the easy to understand style that made the first edition so popular, this book clearly delineates practical, everyday issues and complex technical ones.

The second edition provides:

  • Coverage of new inherent safety metrics and how to measure the degree or level of inherent safety
  • New examples of application of the various principles of inherently safer design and 20 new figures
  • New emphasis on the role of inherently safer design in process safety management systems and in ensuring an appropriate process safety culture
  • Discussion of dust explosion risk reduction by means of inherently safer approaches
  • New chapter on case study development, providing a comprehensive approach to the prevention and mitigation of process incidents by timely incorporation of inherently safer design

This updated version of a classic text examines how to incorporate inherently safer design into process industry activities, revising and updating information based on recent research and developments. A how-to resource at its core, the book includes numerous examples that illustrate the principles of inherently safer design and how to apply them in practice. It explains how to measure the inherent safeness of a process, referencing metric tools that have been developed during the past decade and the tried and true methods that have become industry stand bys.

Table of Contents

Introduction: What are Inherently Safer and User-Friendly Plants?


Inherently Safer and Friendlier Design as Part of an Overall Approach

Hierarchy of Controls


Inherently Safer Design: The Concept and Its Scope and Benefits

The Concept

Defense in Depth

The Scope

The Benefits of Inherently Safer Design

Appendix: The Lady and the Tiger—A New Version of an Old Tale

References and Notes


Process Intensification



Heat Transfer

Other Unit Operations


Intensification by Detailed Design

Many Small Plants or One Big One?

Some Thoughts on Intensification as Minimization

Appendix: Conference Report—New Technology

References and Notes


The Use of Safer Nonreactive Agents

Choosing Less Hazardous Processes

References and Notes


Attenuated Reactions

Attenuated Storage and Transport

A Railway Analogy

References and Notes

Limitation of Effects

Limitation of Effects by Equipment Design

Limitation of Effects by Changing Reaction Conditions

Elimination of Hazards

References and Notes


The Reasons for Complexity

Stronger Equipment Can Replace Relief Systems

Resistant Materials of Construction Can Replace Protective Instruments

Designs Free from Opportunities for Human Error

Design Change Can Avoid the Need for Better Instrumentation

Relocation Can Avoid the Need for Complication

Simple Technology Can Replace High Technology

Leaving Things Out

Power Fluidics: Avoiding Moving Parts

Other Examples of Simplification

Modification Chains

References and Notes

Simplification: Specifications and Flexibility

Following Rules to the Letter

Asking for Too Much Flexibility

Three Problems

Appendix: Some Comments on Simplification


Other Ways of Making Plants Friendlier

Avoiding Knock-On Effects

Making Incorrect Assembly Impossible

Making Status Clear

Tolerance of Misuse

Ease of Control

Computer Control

Instructions and Other Procedures

Life-Cycle Friendliness

Other Industries


Passive Safety

References and Notes

The Road to Friendlier Plants

Constraints on the Development of Friendlier Plants

The Action Needed

The Influence of the Law

The Measurement of Friendliness

Looking for New Knowledge

The Final Decision

Inherently Safer Design Offshore: A Case History

Appendix: Finding Examples of Inherently Safer Design

References and Notes

Inherently Safer Design and Process-Safety Management

Safety Management Systems

Process-Safety Management System Elements

Safety Culture

References and Notes

Friendlier Plants and the Nuclear Industry

New Types of Reactor

Features of Nuclear Plants




The Role of Inherently Safer Design in Dust Explosion Prevention and Mitigation

Dust Explosion Overview

Use of the Hierarchy of Controls





Other Examples

Summary of Prevention and Mitigation Measures

Concluding Remarks


Inherent-Safety Case Studies

Everyday Life Experiences

Newspapers and Magazines

Topical Conferences

Technical Papers

Process-Safety Books

Case Study Books

Other Inherent-Safety Books

Books from Other Industries and Applications

Training Packages

Trade Literature

Loss Prevention Bulletins

Chemical Safety Board Reports

Concluding Remarks


Do We Go Too Far in Removing Risk?

Risks to Output and Efficiency

Risks to Life and Limb

The Contribution of the Operator


The History and Future of Inherently Safer and User-Friendly Design

The Start of the Story

The Idea Develops

Extensions of the Idea


A True Story (except for the Names): August 2009

A Final Thought

References and Notes

Further Reading

Index to First Edition

Appendix A: An Atlas of Safety Thinking

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety