1st Edition

Processing of Polymer Matrix Composites

By P.K. Mallick Copyright 2017
    356 Pages
    by CRC Press

    356 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Polymer matrix composites are finding increasing number of applications due to their high weight-saving potential as well as unique characteristics, such as high strength-to-density ratio, fatigue resistance, high damping factor, and freedom from corrosion. While many textbooks are available on the mechanics of polymer matrix composites, few cover their processing. Processing of Polymer Matrix Composites fills this gap. The book focuses on the major manufacturing processes used for polymer matrix composites and describes process details, process parameters and their effects on properties and process-induced defects, and analytical and experimental methods used for understanding process conditions. The book describes fibers, thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers, and interface characteristics that are important from the standpoint of both design and processing. It also emphasizes the applications of process fundamentals for both continuous fiber and short fiber polymer matrix composites. In addition the book considers quality inspection methods, tooling, and manufacturing costs and environmental and safety issues.

    Chapter 1: Introduction

    10.1 Constituents

    10.2 Fiber Surface Treatment

    10.3 Fiber Volume Fraction

    10.4 Fiber Orientation Angle

    10.5 Modulus and Strength of Unidirectional Composites

    10.6 Laminated Structure

    10.7 Thermal Properties

    10.8 Manufacturing Processes

    10.9 Cost Issues

    10.10 References


    Chapter 2: Fiber Architecture

    2.1 Fiber Forms

    2.2 Linear Fiber Architecture

    2.3 Two-Dimensional Fiber Architecture

    2.4 Three-Dimensional Fiber Architecture

    2.5 Random Fiber Architecture

    2.6 Selection of Fiber Architecture



    Chapter 3: Matrix

    3.1 Thermosetting Polymers

    3.2 Thermoplastic Polymers



    Chapter 4: Processing Fundamentals

    4.1 Cure Cycle for Thermosetting Polymers

    4.2 Viscosity

    4.3 Fiber Surface Wetting

    4.4 Resin Flow

    4.5 Consolidation

    4.6 Shrinkage

    4.7 Voids

    4.8 Residual Stresses and Distortions

    4.9 Manufacturing Process Induced Defects and Their Detection



    Chapter 5: Bag Molding Process

    5.1 Prepreg

    5.2 Bag Molding Process

    5.3 Lay-Up Techniques

    5.4 Automated Tape Laying

    5.5 Cure Cycle

    5.6 Thick Section Laminates

    5.6 Out-of-Autoclave Curing

    5.7 Sandwich Molding

    5.9 Defects in Bag-Molded Parts


    Chapter 6: Compression Molding

    6.1 Sheet Molding Compound

    6.2 Bulk Molding Compound

    6.3 Compression Molding Process

    6.4 Cure Cycle

    6.5 Flow Pattern

    6.6 Fiber Orientation

    6.7 Defects in Compression Molded Parts

    6.8 Compression Molding Parameters

    6.9 Mold Design Considerations

    6.10 Part Design Considerations


    Chapter 7: Liquid Composite Molding

    7.1 Resin Transfer Molding

    7.2 Structural Reaction Injection Molding

    7.3 High Pressure Resin Transfer Molding

    7.4 Preforms

    7.5 Resin Selection and Preparation

    7.6 Processing Steps in Liquid Composite Molding

    7.7 Mold Design


    Chapter 8: Filament Winding

    8.1 Filament Winding Process

    8.2 Helical Filament Winding

    8.3 Filament Winding Machines

    8.4 Mandrel Material and Design

    8.5 Filament Winding Process Parameters and Controls

    8.6 Defects in Filament Wound Parts

    8.7 Fiber Placement

    8.8 Tube Rolling


    Chapter 9: Pultrusion

    9.1 Pultrusion Process

    9.2 Pultrusion Production Line

    9.3 Materials for Pultruded Products

    9.4 Pultrusion Process Parameters

    9.5 Design Guidelines for Pultruded Products

    9.6 Processes Related to Pultrusion


    Chapter 10: Forming of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites

    10.1 Incorporation of Continuous Fibers in Thermoplastic Matrix

    10.2 Consolidation of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites

    10.3 Shape Forming

    10.4 Forming Processes

    10.5 Compression Molding


    Chapter 11: Joining and Repair

    11.1 Joining in Composites

    11.2 Mechanical Fastening

    11.3 Adhesive Bonding

    11.4 Co-Curing

    11.5 Joining of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites


    Appendix A: Health and Safety Issues


    Prof. P.K. Mallick is the William E. Stirton Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Illinois Institute of Technology. His research focuses on polymers and composites, lightweight automotive materials, joining, and materials processing. Prof. Mallick has authored several books, including Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design, 3rd Edition (CRC Press/Taylor & Francis). He is a Life Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and a Fellow of the American Society for Composites.

    "This book serves as a general introduction to students and researchers just entering the field and to scholars from other subfields seeking from basic to applicable information."
    —Masami Okamoto, Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya, Japan

    "I appreciate the focus on processing of polymer matrix composites. I think processing of materials in general has been somewhat neglected. Processing is really the key. Chapters 4 through 10 focus on a variety of processing techniques for polymer matrix composites. That would be my major attraction."
    —K. K. Chawla, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA