Project Scope Management : A Practical Guide to Requirements for Engineering, Product, Construction, IT and Enterprise Projects book cover
1st Edition

Project Scope Management
A Practical Guide to Requirements for Engineering, Product, Construction, IT and Enterprise Projects

ISBN 9781482259483
Published December 3, 2014 by Auerbach Publications
366 Pages 77 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Incomplete or missed requirements, omissions, ambiguous product features, lack of user involvement, unrealistic customer expectations, and the proverbial scope creep can result in cost overruns, missed deadlines, poor product quality, and can very well ruin a project. Project Scope Management: A Practical Guide to Requirements for Engineering, Product, Construction, IT and Enterprise Projects describes how to elicit, document, and manage requirements to control project scope creep. It also explains how to manage project stakeholders to minimize the risk of an ever-growing list of user requirements.

The book begins by discussing how to collect project requirements and define the project scope. Next, it considers the creation of work breakdown structures and examines the verification and control of the scope. Most of the book is dedicated to explaining how to collect requirements and how to define product and project scope inasmuch as they represent the bulk of the project scope management work undertaken on any project regardless of the industry or the nature of the work involved.

The book maintains a focus on practical and sensible tools and techniques rather than academic theories. It examines five different projects and traces their development from a project scope management perspective—from project initiation to the end of the execution and control phases. The types of projects considered include CRM system implementation, mobile number portability, port upgrade, energy-efficient house design, and airport check-in kiosk software.

After reading this book, you will learn how to create project charters, high-level scope, detailed requirements specifications, requirements management plans, traceability matrices, and a work breakdown structure for the projects covered.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Scope Management: Who? What? Why?
Historical Perspective: The Rusted Staple Story
Why Write a Book about Project Scope Management?
     Current State of Project Scope Management 
     Key Problems with Scope 
          Port Upgrade: Container Terminal Construction Project 
          Wireless Company: Mobile Number Portability Project 
     Does This Sound Like Your Life?
     Why Bother with Requirements?
Developing a Shared Platform 
     Chapter Summary

History of Scope Management
Brief History of Project Scope Management 
     Twenty-Seventh Century BC: Sneferu’s Expensive Prototyping
     First Century AD: Building the Colosseum 
     Fifth Century: Composite Bow Design 
     Tenth Century: Story of a Viking Longship 
     Twelfth Century: First "Do-It-Yourself" Book
     Fifteenth Century: Leonardo da Vinci 
     Eighteenth Century: Industrial Revolution 
     Twentieth Century: Software Engineering 
     Twenty-First Century: Project Management Institute and the PMBOK® Guide
Chapter Summary

Writing Project Charters
Historical Perspective: The Sheep and the Oil
Dual Role of the Project Charter 
     What Is a Project Charter? 
     Portfolio Management Perspective 
     Project Management Perspective
What Is Included in the Project Charters? 
     Problem and Opportunity Statements 
          Mobile Number Portability—Problem Opportunity Statement 
     Goals and Objectives
          ABC Software Systems Goals and Objectives 
     Rough Order of Magnitude Budget and Schedule
     Stakeholder Register 
     Project Feasibility/Justification 
     Risk Management 
Chapter Summary

Requirements, Customers, Users
Historical Perspective: "New Account Opening" Project
     Types of Requirements 
          Hierarchical Approach 
          Engineering Approach 
          Conscious, Unconscious, and Undreamed-of Requirements Approach
          Departments Involved or Domains Approach
          Systems Approach
          Target Audiences Approach 
          Information Technology or Software Development Approach 
     What Is the Requirements Engineering Process? 
     Who Is a Requirements Analyst? 
     What Does the Analyst Do? 
     What Skills Would You Need?
Requirements Owners: Customers, Users, and Stakeholders 
     Introducing the Requirements Owner
     Who Should We Talk To? 
     Why Do We Neglect the Customer? 
     How Do We Find the Requirements Owners? 
     Customers versus Users Discussion
Partnership Agreement
Chapter Summary

High-Level Scope Elicitation
Historical Perspective: University in the Desert
Sources for Requirements 
     Requirements Elicitation Is Not Easy
How to Elicit Requirements
     Elicitation Methodologies 
          Requirements Specs 
          Problem Reports/Enhancement Requests 
          Marketing Surveys/Focus Groups
          Market Trends 
          Observing Users
          Scenario Analysis 
          Events and Responses 
          Competitive Products Benchmarked 
          Reverse Engineering 
          Cool Hunting
          Crowd Sourcing 
     Unearthing High-Level Requirements 
          Importance of Questions
          Structure for Defining Preliminary Scope 
          Types of Questions to Ask 
          Critical Thinking
Some Cautions about Elicitation 
     "Losing" the Stakeholders 
     Listening to Only a Few Representatives 
     Requirements versus Design 
          Scenario 1 
          Scenario 2 
     "Don’t Ask Too Many Questions" Advice
Chapter Summary

Detailed Requirements Elicitation
Historical Perspective: Burj Al Arab
Detailed Requirements Elicitation Methodologies 
     Brainstorming Revisited
     Flowchart Diagrams 
     5 Whys Method
     User Scenario Method 
     Best Trawling Techniques
Running Efficient Meetings
     Importance of Communications 
     How Formal Should One Get? 
     Importance of Meeting Minutes 
     What Are the Benefits of Meeting Minutes?
     How to Make Your Meetings Work
Top Five Signs That You Are Done Collecting and Reviewing the Requirements
Prioritizing Requirements
     Games Your Stakeholders Can Play 
     Ways to Prioritize Requirements 
          Must Have, Should Have, and Nice to Have 
          Urgent/Not Urgent versus Important/Not Important
          Market-Qualifying Criteria
          Order-Losing Criteria 
          Order-Winning Criteria 
          Expected versus Unexpected Features 
          Utilizing the Project Portfolio Management Technique
Documenting Requirements 
     Criteria for Good Requirements 
     Introducing the Concept of Measurability
Chapter Summary

Documenting Requirements: Information Technology and Software Development
Historical Perspective: The Story of A2LL
Requirements Specifications Template
Functional Requirements 
     What Are the Requirements Writing Guidelines?
     Words to Avoid
     Requirements versus Design Discussion Revisited 
     Parking Lots
Nonfunctional Requirements 
     A Look at Nonfunctional Requirements
Documenting IT and Software Development Requirements 
          Document Purpose
          Intended Audience 
          Project Scope
          References Section 
     Product Description 
          Product Features 
          User Classes 
          Operating Environment 
     System Features 
          System Feature—Traveler Identification—Passport 
     External Interface Requirements 
          User Interfaces 
          Hardware Interfaces 
          Software Interfaces 
          Communications Interfaces
Nonfunctional Requirements 
     Performance Requirements
     Security Requirements 
     Other Software Quality Attributes
Appendix Section

Documenting Requirements: Engineering and Product Development Projects
Historical Perspective: Viking Longships
Requirements Specifications Template
What Are the Requirements Writing Guidelines?
Documenting the Multidisciplinary Requirements 
          Document Purpose 
          Intended Audience 
          Project Scope 
          References Section 
     Product Description
          Product Features 
          User Classes and Characteristics 
          Product Environment
Product Features and Requirements
Appendix Section

Documenting Requirements: Multidisciplinary Projects
Historical Perspective: The Palm Jumeirah Project
Requirements Specifications Template
What Are the Requirements Writing Guidelines?
Documenting Multidisciplinary Requirements 
          Document Purpose
          Intended Audience 
          Project Scope 
          References Section
     Product Description 
          Product Features 
          User Classes and Characteristics 
          Product Environment
Product Features and Requirements 
     F 1.0—Call Center Module
Appendix Section

Creating the Requirements Management Plan and Requirements Traceability Matrix
     When Does One Write the RMP and the RTM? 
     RMP Benefits 
     What Is Traceability?
     What Are the RTM Benefits?
RMP and RTM Analysis 
          Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations 
          References Section
          Requirements Planning 
          Requirements Tracking 
          Requirements Reporting 
     Configuration Management
          Change Initiation 
          Change Impact Analysis
          Change Tracing, Tracking, and Reporting 
          Change Authorization Levels 
     Requirements Prioritization Process 
     Requirements Traceability Matrix

Final Product Design
Historical Perspective: The Katana Sword
Design Process 
     Design Process Challenges 
     How Complicated Can the Design Process Get? 
     Design Process Detailed 
     Clarifying Client’s Objectives
Formal Methods of Design Process 
     Morphological Charts 
     Objectives Tree Method 
     Pairwise Comparisons 
     Three-Point Voting
Design Presentation
     Prototypes, Models, and Proofs of Concept
Chapter Summary

Creating Work Breakdown Structures and WBS Dictionaries
Historical Perspective: The Great Pyramid
What Is a Work Breakdown Structure? 
     WBS Components 
     Rules of WBS Creation 
     A WBS Sample 
     Generic WBS: Project Management Tasks 
     Generic WBS: Starting Phases
WBS Dictionary 
Estimation Using WBS 
     Introduction: How to Improve Your Estimates 
     Improving Your Estimate Accuracy with Wide-Band
     Delphi and PERT 
          Wide-Band Delphi 
          Wide-Band Delphi "Light" 
          Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) 
          Common Estimation Oversights
Chapter Summary

Troubleshooting Scope Problems
Historical Perspective: General Hadik’s Crucial Mistake
Scope Elicitation Issues 
     Lack of Communication between Project Team and Customers 
     Lack of Access to Higher Authority 
     Inability to See the Entire Project 
     Absence of Requirements Prioritization 
     What Can Be Done?
Lack of Skills Issues
     Poorly Trained Requirements Professionals 
     Technical Experts and Requirements Experts 
     Lack of Stakeholder Education 
     What Can Be Done?
Project Management Issues 
     Teams under Pressure 
     Excess of Scope 
     Quick De-Scoping at the End of the Project 
     What Can Be Done?
Documentation Issues
     Undocumented Requirements 
     Vague Scope and Lack of Measurability
     What Can Be Done?
Scope Management Issues 
     Customers Have Direct Access to the Technical People 
     Frequent Scope Creep 
     What Can Be Done?
Chapter Summary

Scope Verification
Historical Perspective: The Admiral’s Mistake
Value of Scope Verification
Customer Walk-Throughs, Technical Inspections, and Peer Reviews 
     Review Process 
     Preparing and Running the Reviews 
     Customer Walk-Throughs
Technical Inspections
     Peer Reviews 
     Documents That Need Reviewing 
     Questions and Checklists
Chapter Summary

Controlling Project Scope
Historical Perspective: The Story of the Magenta
Expectations Management 
     About Stakeholder Expectations Management
About Scope Changes
     Impact of the Changes 
     Good versus Bad Changes
Controlling and Managing Project Scope
     What Is the Best Practices Approach? 
     Utilizing Change Requests 
     Assessing the Impacts of the Requested Change 
     Updates to the Documentation
Chapter Summary

References and Additional Reading


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Jamal Moustafaev, MBA, PMP, president and founder of Thinktank Consulting, is an internationally acclaimed expert in the areas of project/portfolio management, project scoping, process improvement, and corporate training. He has completed projects for private sector companies and government organizations in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, including the US Department of Defense (USA), Siemens (Germany), Petronas Oil (Malaysia), and TeliaSonera (Sweden), to name a few.

Moustafaev is a certified Project Management Professional (PMPR). He holds an MBA in Finance and a BBA (Finance and Management Science) from Simon Fraser University. In addition to teaching a highly acclaimed Project Management Essentials course at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (Vancouver, Canada), Moustafaev also offers several project and portfolio management corporate seminars through his company:

  • Practical Portfolio Management—Selecting and Managing the Right Projects
  • Successful Hands-On Management of IT and Software Projects
  • Successful Hands-On Management of Modern-Day Projects
  • Project Scope Management


The book unites the best practices of scope management from the fields of traditional project management, information technology, software development, engineering, product development, architecture, construction, and multidisciplinary projects. It is based on the most advanced and popular works by prominent authors and contains the latest advances in project scope management. It also concentrates on the hands-on practicality of tools and techniques rather than focusing on their academic prominence. Best of all, Jamal’s book is easy to read and uses informal, nonacademic language to explain all the key points.
—R. Max Wideman, P. Eng., FCSCE, FEIC, FICE, FPMI, Vancouver, British Columbia