Project Scope Management: A Practical Guide to Requirements for Engineering, Product, Construction, IT and Enterprise Projects, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Project Scope Management

A Practical Guide to Requirements for Engineering, Product, Construction, IT and Enterprise Projects, 1st Edition

By Jamal Moustafaev

Auerbach Publications

366 pages | 77 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-12-03
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Incomplete or missed requirements, omissions, ambiguous product features, lack of user involvement, unrealistic customer expectations, and the proverbial scope creep can result in cost overruns, missed deadlines, poor product quality, and can very well ruin a project. Project Scope Management: A Practical Guide to Requirements for Engineering, Product, Construction, IT and Enterprise Projects describes how to elicit, document, and manage requirements to control project scope creep. It also explains how to manage project stakeholders to minimize the risk of an ever-growing list of user requirements.

The book begins by discussing how to collect project requirements and define the project scope. Next, it considers the creation of work breakdown structures and examines the verification and control of the scope. Most of the book is dedicated to explaining how to collect requirements and how to define product and project scope inasmuch as they represent the bulk of the project scope management work undertaken on any project regardless of the industry or the nature of the work involved.

The book maintains a focus on practical and sensible tools and techniques rather than academic theories. It examines five different projects and traces their development from a project scope management perspective—from project initiation to the end of the execution and control phases. The types of projects considered include CRM system implementation, mobile number portability, port upgrade, energy-efficient house design, and airport check-in kiosk software.

After reading this book, you will learn how to create project charters, high-level scope, detailed requirements specifications, requirements management plans, traceability matrices, and a work breakdown structure for the projects covered.


The book unites the best practices of scope management from the fields of traditional project management, information technology, software development, engineering, product development, architecture, construction, and multidisciplinary projects. It is based on the most advanced and popular works by prominent authors and contains the latest advances in project scope management. It also concentrates on the hands-on practicality of tools and techniques rather than focusing on their academic prominence. Best of all, Jamal’s book is easy to read and uses informal, nonacademic language to explain all the key points.

—R. Max Wideman, P. Eng., FCSCE, FEIC, FICE, FPMI, Vancouver, British Columbia

Table of Contents

Introduction to Scope Management: Who? What? Why?

Historical Perspective: The Rusted Staple Story

Why Write a Book about Project Scope Management?

Current State of Project Scope Management

Key Problems with Scope

Port Upgrade: Container Terminal Construction Project

Wireless Company: Mobile Number Portability Project

Does This Sound Like Your Life?

Why Bother with Requirements?

Developing a Shared Platform


Chapter Summary

History of Scope Management


Brief History of Project Scope Management

Twenty-Seventh Century BC: Sneferu’s Expensive Prototyping

First Century AD: Building the Colosseum

Fifth Century: Composite Bow Design

Tenth Century: Story of a Viking Longship

Twelfth Century: First "Do-It-Yourself" Book

Fifteenth Century: Leonardo da Vinci

Eighteenth Century: Industrial Revolution

Twentieth Century: Software Engineering

Twenty-First Century: Project Management Institute and the PMBOK® Guide

Chapter Summary

Writing Project Charters

Historical Perspective: The Sheep and the Oil

Dual Role of the Project Charter

What Is a Project Charter?

Portfolio Management Perspective

Project Management Perspective

What Is Included in the Project Charters?

Problem and Opportunity Statements

Mobile Number Portability—Problem Opportunity Statement

Goals and Objectives

ABC Software Systems Goals and Objectives

Rough Order of Magnitude Budget and Schedule

Stakeholder Register

Project Feasibility/Justification

Risk Management




Chapter Summary

Requirements, Customers, Users

Historical Perspective: "New Account Opening" Project



Types of Requirements

Hierarchical Approach

Engineering Approach

Conscious, Unconscious, and Undreamed-of Requirements Approach

Departments Involved or Domains Approach

Systems Approach

Target Audiences Approach

Information Technology or Software Development Approach

What Is the Requirements Engineering Process?

Who Is a Requirements Analyst?

What Does the Analyst Do?

What Skills Would You Need?

Requirements Owners: Customers, Users, and Stakeholders

Introducing the Requirements Owner

Who Should We Talk To?

Why Do We Neglect the Customer?

How Do We Find the Requirements Owners?

Customers versus Users Discussion

Partnership Agreement

Chapter Summary

High-Level Scope Elicitation

Historical Perspective: University in the Desert

Sources for Requirements

Requirements Elicitation Is Not Easy

How to Elicit Requirements

Elicitation Methodologies



Requirements Specs

Problem Reports/Enhancement Requests

Marketing Surveys/Focus Groups

Market Trends

Observing Users

Scenario Analysis

Events and Responses



Competitive Products Benchmarked

Reverse Engineering

Cool Hunting

Crowd Sourcing


Unearthing High-Level Requirements

Importance of Questions

Structure for Defining Preliminary Scope

Types of Questions to Ask

Critical Thinking

Some Cautions about Elicitation

"Losing" the Stakeholders

Listening to Only a Few Representatives

Requirements versus Design

Scenario 1

Scenario 2

"Don’t Ask Too Many Questions" Advice

Chapter Summary

Detailed Requirements Elicitation

Historical Perspective: Burj Al Arab

Detailed Requirements Elicitation Methodologies



Brainstorming Revisited

Flowchart Diagrams

5 Whys Method

User Scenario Method


Best Trawling Techniques

Running Efficient Meetings

Importance of Communications

How Formal Should One Get?

Importance of Meeting Minutes

What Are the Benefits of Meeting Minutes?

How to Make Your Meetings Work

Top Five Signs That You Are Done Collecting and Reviewing the Requirements

Prioritizing Requirements

Games Your Stakeholders Can Play

Ways to Prioritize Requirements

Must Have, Should Have, and Nice to Have

Urgent/Not Urgent versus Important/Not Important

Market-Qualifying Criteria

Order-Losing Criteria

Order-Winning Criteria

Expected versus Unexpected Features

Utilizing the Project Portfolio Management Technique

Documenting Requirements

Criteria for Good Requirements

Introducing the Concept of Measurability

Chapter Summary

Documenting Requirements: Information Technology and Software Development


Historical Perspective: The Story of A2LL

Requirements Specifications Template

Functional Requirements

What Are the Requirements Writing Guidelines?

Words to Avoid

Requirements versus Design Discussion Revisited

Parking Lots

Nonfunctional Requirements

A Look at Nonfunctional Requirements

Documenting IT and Software Development Requirements


Document Purpose

Intended Audience

Project Scope

References Section

Product Description

Product Features

User Classes

Operating Environment

System Features

System Feature—Traveler Identification—Passport

External Interface Requirements

User Interfaces

Hardware Interfaces

Software Interfaces

Communications Interfaces

Nonfunctional Requirements

Performance Requirements

Security Requirements

Other Software Quality Attributes

Appendix Section

Documenting Requirements: Engineering and Product Development Projects

Historical Perspective: Viking Longships

Requirements Specifications Template

What Are the Requirements Writing Guidelines?

Documenting the Multidisciplinary Requirements


Document Purpose

Intended Audience

Project Scope

References Section

Product Description

Product Features

User Classes and Characteristics

Product Environment

Product Features and Requirements

Appendix Section

Documenting Requirements: Multidisciplinary Projects

Historical Perspective: The Palm Jumeirah Project

Requirements Specifications Template

What Are the Requirements Writing Guidelines?

Documenting Multidisciplinary Requirements


Document Purpose

Intended Audience

Project Scope

References Section

Product Description

Product Features

User Classes and Characteristics

Product Environment

Product Features and Requirements

F 1.0—Call Center Module

Appendix Section

Creating the Requirements Management Plan and Requirements Traceability Matrix


When Does One Write the RMP and the RTM?

RMP Benefits

What Is Traceability?

What Are the RTM Benefits?

RMP and RTM Analysis




Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations

References Section



Requirements Planning

Requirements Tracking

Requirements Reporting

Configuration Management

Change Initiation

Change Impact Analysis

Change Tracing, Tracking, and Reporting

Change Authorization Levels

Requirements Prioritization Process

Requirements Traceability Matrix

Final Product Design

Historical Perspective: The Katana Sword

Design Process

Design Process Challenges

How Complicated Can the Design Process Get?

Design Process Detailed

Clarifying Client’s Objectives

Formal Methods of Design Process

Morphological Charts

Objectives Tree Method

Pairwise Comparisons

Three-Point Voting

Design Presentation

Prototypes, Models, and Proofs of Concept

Chapter Summary

Creating Work Breakdown Structures and WBS Dictionaries

Historical Perspective: The Great Pyramid

What Is a Work Breakdown Structure?

WBS Components

Rules of WBS Creation

A WBS Sample

Generic WBS: Project Management Tasks

Generic WBS: Starting Phases

WBS Dictionary

Estimation Using WBS

Introduction: How to Improve Your Estimates

Improving Your Estimate Accuracy with Wide-Band

Delphi and PERT

Wide-Band Delphi

Wide-Band Delphi "Light"

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Common Estimation Oversights

Chapter Summary

Troubleshooting Scope Problems

Historical Perspective: General Hadik’s Crucial Mistake


Scope Elicitation Issues

Lack of Communication between Project Team and Customers

Lack of Access to Higher Authority

Inability to See the Entire Project

Absence of Requirements Prioritization

What Can Be Done?

Lack of Skills Issues

Poorly Trained Requirements Professionals

Technical Experts and Requirements Experts

Lack of Stakeholder Education

What Can Be Done?

Project Management Issues

Teams under Pressure

Excess of Scope

Quick De-Scoping at the End of the Project

What Can Be Done?

Documentation Issues

Undocumented Requirements

Vague Scope and Lack of Measurability

What Can Be Done?

Scope Management Issues

Customers Have Direct Access to the Technical People

Frequent Scope Creep

What Can Be Done?

Chapter Summary

Scope Verification

Historical Perspective: The Admiral’s Mistake

Value of Scope Verification

Customer Walk-Throughs, Technical Inspections, and Peer Reviews

Review Process

Preparing and Running the Reviews

Customer Walk-Throughs

Technical Inspections

Peer Reviews

Documents That Need Reviewing

Questions and Checklists

Chapter Summary

Controlling Project Scope

Historical Perspective: The Story of the Magenta

Expectations Management

About Stakeholder Expectations Management

About Scope Changes

Impact of the Changes

Good versus Bad Changes

Controlling and Managing Project Scope

What Is the Best Practices Approach?

Utilizing Change Requests

Assessing the Impacts of the Requested Change

Updates to the Documentation

Chapter Summary

References and Additional Reading


About the Author

Jamal Moustafaev, MBA, PMP, president and founder of Thinktank Consulting, is an internationally acclaimed expert in the areas of project/portfolio management, project scoping, process improvement, and corporate training. He has completed projects for private sector companies and government organizations in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, including the US Department of Defense (USA), Siemens (Germany), Petronas Oil (Malaysia), and TeliaSonera (Sweden), to name a few.

Moustafaev is a certified Project Management Professional (PMPR). He holds an MBA in Finance and a BBA (Finance and Management Science) from Simon Fraser University. In addition to teaching a highly acclaimed Project Management Essentials course at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (Vancouver, Canada), Moustafaev also offers several project and portfolio management corporate seminars through his company:

  • Practical Portfolio Management—Selecting and Managing the Right Projects
  • Successful Hands-On Management of IT and Software Projects
  • Successful Hands-On Management of Modern-Day Projects
  • Project Scope Management

About the Series

Best Practices in Portfolio, Program, and Project Management

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Project Management
COMPUTERS / Information Technology
COMPUTERS / Software Development & Engineering / General