1st Edition

Protected Areas, Sustainable Tourism and Community Livelihood Linkages

Edited By Moren T. Stone, Lesego S. Stone, Gyan Nyaupane Copyright 2025
    228 Pages
    by Routledge

    The book uses a multi-disciplinary approach to address lessons learned and challenges encountered over the years in different ecological, economic, political and cultural contexts.

    Protected areas were originally established as recreational spaces and to protect some components of nature; however, today they are also expected to provide an increasing range of benefits to an array of people. Protected areas no longer simply “protect” but they also provide ecosystem services and facilitate poverty reduction via local development, ecotourism, and sustainable resource use. Integrating tourism and conservation with existing local historical, socio-economic, and institutional landscapes is associated with the promotion of local community participation in resource management. The book adopts an interdisciplinary approach to understand social-ecological systems that explain the relationship between protected areas, tourism, and community livelihoods linkages. The book provides a platform for dialogue to develop a better understanding of the complex relationships between protected areas, tourism, and community livelihoods linkages. Due to the role tourism plays in poverty alleviation, conservation, empowerment and addressing other environmental and social challenges, the book also connects tourism with the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

    This book will be of great interest to students, scholars and policymakers of tourism, conservation, natural resource management, sustainable development as well as professionals and policymakers involved in conservation policy. The chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of Journal of Sustainable Tourism.


    1. Theorizing and contextualizing protected areas, tourism and community livelihoods linkages

    Moren Tibabo Stone, Lesego Senyana Stone and Gyan P. Nyaupane


    2. Resident support of community-based tourism development: Evidence from Gunung Ciremai National Park, Indonesia

    Prasetyo Nugroho and Shinya Numata


    3. Impacts of tourism on support for conservation, local livelihoods, and community resilience around Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya

    Kathleen Krafte Holland, Lincoln R. Larson, Robert B. Powell, W. Hunter Holland, Lawrence Allen, Moriaso Nabaala, Salaton Tome, Simon Seno and James Nampushi


    4. Community-Based ecotourism and bushmeat consumption dynamics: Implications for conservation and community development

    Moren Tibabo Stone and Lesego Senyana Stone


    5. Tourism development discourse dynamics in a context of conflicts between mining and nature conservation in the Brazilian Cerrado Hotspot

    Nayara Marques, Mozart Fazito and André Cunha


    6. Connecting landscape-scale ecological restoration and tourism: stakeholder perspectives in the great plains of North America

    Connor Clark and Gyan P. Nyaupane


    7. Environmentality, green grabbing, and neoliberal conservation: The ambiguous role of ecotourism in the Green Life privatised nature reserve, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Chantal Elizabeth Wieckardt, Stasja Koot and Nadya Karimasari


    8. Privately protected areas in increasingly turbulent social contexts: strategic roles, extent, and governance

    William Thomas Borrie, Trace Gale and Keith Bosak


    9. The use of tourism as a social intervention in indigenous communities to support the conservation of natural protected areas in Mexico

    Gerda Warnholtz, Neil Ormerod and Chris Cooper


    10. Social and cultural capitals in tourism resource governance: the essential lenses for community focussed co-management

    Muhammad Shoeb-Ur-Rahman, David Simmons, Michael C. Shone and Nazmun N. Ratna


    11. Governance of protected areas: an institutional analysis of conservation, community livelihood, and tourism outcomes

    Gyan P. Nyaupane, Surya Poudel and Abigail York



    Moren Tibabo Stone is Associate Professor of Environmental Science and Tourism Studies at the University of Botswana, Department of Environmental Science. His research interests include sustainable tourism development and management, ecotourism, community-based tourism, protected areas conservation and community livelihoods dynamics.


    Lesego Senyana Stone is Associate Professor in Tourism Management at the University of Botswana in the Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management. Her research interests are in sustainable tourism development with specific reference to nature-based tourism, community-based tourism and community participation in tourism.


    Gyan P. Nyaupane is Professor in the School of Community Resources & Development at Arizona State University. He has research experience in the fields of protected areas, public lands and sustainable tourism planning and policy. His research interests include understanding human-environment interactions, sustainable communities, resilience, indigeneity, nature-based tourism, and policy and planning.