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Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems

1st Edition

By Donald Reimert

CRC Press

592 pages | 361 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780824707002
pub: 2005-12-09
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Description

Power outages have considerable social and economic impacts, and effective protection schemes are crucial to avoiding them. While most textbooks focus on the transmission and distribution aspects of protective relays, Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems is the first to focus on protection of motors and generators from a power generation perspective. It also includes workbook constructions that allow students to perform protection-related calculations in Mathcad® and Excel®.

This text provides both a general overview and in-depth discussion of each topic, making it easy to tailor the material to students' needs. It also covers topics not found in other texts on the subject, including detailed time decrement generator fault calculations and minimum excitation limit. The author clearly explains the potential for damage and damaging mechanisms related to each protection function and includes thorough derivations of complex system interactions. Such derivations underlie the various rule-of-thumb setting criteria, provide insight into why the rules-of-thumb work and when they are not appropriate, and are useful for post-incident analysis. The book's flexible approach combines theoretical discussions with example settings that offer quick how-to information.

Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems integrates fundamental knowledge with practical tools to ensure students have a thorough understanding of protection schemes and issues that arise during or after abnormal operation.

Reviews

"…covers a wide range of topics and can help the reader to achieve basic understanding or deep knowledge of generator and motor protection, thus meeting the needs of both students and professionals… The author… has worked for more than 35 years in the design not only of generator and motor protection systems, but also substation, transmission, and distribution facilities. His system planning experience as well as the preparation and teaching of different protection related courses at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee allow him to present the material in the book in a clear and practical manner."

—PAC World Magazine

"Power engineers and application engineers who work with generator protective devices as well as power engineering students would find this book to be a great hands-on reference that reveals a wealth of information on generator protective relaying for power systems."

– John J. Shea, in IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, September/October 2007, Vol. 23, No. 5

Table of Contents

GENERATOR NORMAL OPERATIONS

The Sample System

Generator Capability

Voltage Limitations

System Limitations

Generator Capability Variations with Voltage

Excitation System

References

GENERATOR SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

Introduction

Short-Circuit Current Characteristics

Generator Internal Magnetics

Generator Magnetic Structures

Generator Constants

Fault Current Calculations

Voltage Regulator

Practical Shortcuts

Short Circuit Calculation Example

References

GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY: 87G

Introduction

Ideal Differential Relay

Practical Considerations

Percentage Differential Relay

Relay Characteristics

Minimum Operating Current Setting

Slope Setting

Sample System Differential Relay Settings

CT Saturation

Stabilizing Resistor

Balancing Burden

Time Delay

Frequency Response

References

BACKUP FAULT PROTECTION

Purpose and Implementation

Voltage Supervised Overcurrent Relays

Distance Relays

References

GENERATOR GROUND FAULT PROTECTION

Introduction

Generator Grounding Considerations

Methods of Grounding

Ground Fault Protection

References

UNBALANCED CURRENT PROTECTION

Introduction

What is Negative-Sequence Current?

Effects of Negative-Sequence Current

Generator Negative-Sequence Capability

Sources of Negative-Sequence Current

In-Service (I2)^2t Duty Versus Standards

Unbalanced Current Protection

Negative-Sequence Relay Settings

References

MOTORING PROTECTION

Introduction

Effects of Motoring

Protection

Sequential Trip Logic

Backup Protection

Setting Device 32

Applying Reversed Power Relay on the Sample System

References

FIELD WINDING PROTECTION

Field Ground Protection

Field Overcurrent Protection

Settings for Field Overcurrent Overvoltage Relays

Applying Field OC Protection on the Sample System

References

OVEREXCITATION

Introduction

Causes of Overexcitation

Damage

V/Hz Limits

Protection

Settings

Differential Relay Response to Overexcitation

Application of V/Hz Protection on the Sample System

References

ABNORMAL FREQUENCY PROTECTION

Introduction

Effect on Generator

Steam Turbines

Combustion Turbines

Hydro Generators

Excitation System

Protection and Settings

References

MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER

Overview of the Minimum Excitation Limiter Application

Setting Criteria Background

Setting Criteria

Steady State and Dynamic Stability Considerations

Generator Leading VAR Capability

Coordination with the LOF Relay

System Stability Limits

MEL Protective Characteristic

MEL Dynamic Performance

MEL Application on the Sample System

References

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Introduction

Turbine Generator Damage

Transient Stability

Out-of-Step Protection

Classical Swing Impedance Characteristic

Dynamic Swing Representation

Dynamic Swing Calculations

Setting Consideration

Out-of-Step Relay: Device 78

Setting Out-of-Step on Sample System

References

LOSS OF FIELD PROTECTION

General

System Impact

Generator Damage

Loss of Field Protection: Device 40

Distance Relay Schemes

Other Causes for LOF Relay Operations

LOF Relays During System Disturbances

Special Considerations for Hydro Units

Application of the LOF on the Sample System

References

SYNCHRONIZATION PROTECTION

Introduction

Damage

Synchronizing Methods

Synchronism Check Relays (Device 25)

Automatic Synchronizer (Device 25A)

Slow Breaker Protection

Settings

Synchronizing Equipment on the Sample System

References

ACCIDENTAL ENERGIZATION PROTECTION

Introduction

Generator State at Energization

Inadvertent Energization

Breaker Flashover

Dynamic Analysis of Three-Phase Energization from Standstill

Generator Damage

Turbine Damage

Energization Protection

Protection Provided by Native Schemes

Dedicated Energization Protection

Applying Energization Protection on the Sample System

References

MOTOR PROTECTION

Introduction

Motor Characteristics And Representation

Motor Ratings

Motor Characteristics

Motor Applications

Motor Starting

Mechanic System Considerations

Pump Characteristics

Motor Overload Protection

Multifunction Microprocessor Relays

Transient Current Evaluation

Special Schemes for Difficult Starts

Direct Temperature Measurement

Phase Fault Protection

Ground Fault Protection

Phase Unbalanced Protection

Sample Setting Calculations

References

APPENDIX A: SWING IMPEDANCE LOCUS CALCULATION USING EXCEL®

APPENDIX B

APPENDIX C

APPENDIX D

APPENDIX E

APPENDIX F

INDEX

About the Series

Power Engineering (Willis)

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General