1st Edition

Proteins and Non-protein Nitrogen in Human Milk

By Stephanie Atkinson, Bo Lonnerdal Copyright 1989

    For the first time, an entire publication has been dedicated to providing a critical review of the identification and analysis of the milk specific proteins such as lactalbumin, lactoferrin and casein; the non-milk specific proteins such as plasma and membrane proteins; and the minor nitrogen-containing components such as enzymes, hormones, and growth factors. Biological roles, whether nutritional, endocrinological or immunological, of the specific nitrogen compounds in mammary milk production and/or growth and development of the breast-fed infant are also presented. Identification of the molecular weight compounds that have led to questions about their function in milk and their inclusion in modern infant formulas is thoroughly discussed and of great value to scientists in sub-specialties of biochemistry, nutrition, physiology and immunology, as well as to pediatric practitioners with primary interests in the infant food industry, academia, or clinical nutrition. The thoroughness of each chapter, often providing an historical panorama of the specific aspect of milk composition, makes this book useful for both the uninitiated and expert audiences who are interested in advancing their knowledge of human milk biochemistry and its physiological significance to the recipient infant.

    OVERVIEW. Overview: The Biochemistry of Nitrogen Components in Human Milk and Their Physiological Significance. PROTEINS IN HUMAN MILK. Casein Micelles and Casein Subunits in Human Milk. Whey Proteins in Human Milk. Immunoglobulins in Human Milk. Peptide Hormones and Hormone-Like Substances in Milk. Enzymes in Human Milk. Growth Factors in Human Milk: Sources and Potential Physiological Roles. Fat Globule Proteins. NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN IN HUMAN MILK. Non-Protein Nitrogen Components in Human Milk: Biochemistry and Potential Functional Role. PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NITROGEN COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK. Protein Quantity and Whey: Casein Ratio in Infant Formulas. Is Taurine an Essential Nutrient for Neonates? Excretion of Human Milk Proteins by Term and Premature Infants. Amino Acid Metabolism in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Infants. Amino Acid Metabolism and Requirements of the Premature Infant: Is Human Milk the "Gold Standard". Non-Immunoglobulins Compounds in Human Milk - Candidates for Prophylaxis Against Infantile Infections. Milk Lipases and in vivo Lipolysis. Index.


    Stephanie Ann Atkinson, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Associate Member, Department of Biochemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. She is also on the Special Professional Staff of Chedoke-McMaster Hospitals and is the Director of the Pediatric Program in Nutrition and Metabolism for the McMaster University Health Sciences Centre., The current focus of her research is on developmental aspects of macro and trace element requirements of low birthweight infants or children with specific diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Currently, she and Dr. Lönnerdal, the co-editor of this book, are collaborating on studies of the utilization of protein and non-protein nitrogen in milks fed to young infants., Bo Lönnerdal, Ph.D., is Professor of Nutrition in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at the University of California at Davis. He also has a joint appointment as Professor of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine at the same university.