1st Edition

Providing Safe Drinking Water in Small Systems Technology, Operations, and Economics

Edited By Joseph Cotruvo, Gunther F. Craun, Nancy Hearne Copyright 1998

    The continued lack of access to adequate amounts of safe drinking water is one of the primary causes of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide and a serious situation which governments, international agencies and private organizations are striving to alleviate. Barriers to providing safe drinking water for rural areas and small communities that must be overcome include the financing and stability of small systems, their operation, and appropriate, cost-effective technologies to treat and deliver water to consumers.
    While we know how to technically produce safe drinking water, we are not always able to achieve sustainable safe water supplies for small systems in developed and developing countries. Everyone wants to move rapidly to reach the goal of universal safe drinking water, because safe water is the most fundamental essential element for personal and social health and welfare. Without safe water and a safe environment, sustained personal economic and cultural development is impossible. Often small rural systems are the last in the opportunity line.
    Safe Drinking Water in Small Systems describes feasible technologies, operating procedures, management, and financing opportunities to alleviate problems faced by small water systems in both developed and developing countries. In addition to widely used traditional technologies this reference presents emerging technologies and non-traditional approaches to water treatment, management, sources of energy, and the delivery of safe water.

    Preface and Welcoming Remarks
    The Worldwide Drinking Water: Problems and Prospects
    The Water Challenge
    Safe Drinking Water
    The Continuing Threat of Waterborne Pathogens
    World of Water: Beyond the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade
    Ensuring the Sustainability of Small Systems
    Community Water Supply and Sanitation Conference
    Sustainable Design for Small Systems
    Community Participation and Management of Water Systems
    Linking Full-Cost Recovery and Sustainability
    Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Supply in Rural Communities in Venezuela
    Industrial Water Conservation: A Mechanism for Sustainable Resource Management
    Small Water Supplies in Urban Areas of Developing Countries
    Essential Elements for the Sustainability of Small Water Systems
    Water Treatment Technologies: Disinfection of Waterborne Pathogens
    Chlorination Systems
    Overview of Chlorine Dioxide, Ozone and UV
    Chlorine Dioxide and the Small Drinking Water System Ozone Treatment of Small Water Systems Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Medium Pressure Ultra Violet Light Risk Management of Cryptosporidium: An Engineer's Perspective
    Low Cost UV Disinfection System for Developing Countries
    Disinfection by Mixed Oxidant Technology in a Portable Package Plant
    Stabilized Formulation of Hydrogen Peroxide with Silver: A Secondary Disinfectant
    Performance of a Small Portable Disinfection System Using Iodinated Resin
    Solar Water Pasteurizers
    Rural Disinfection Technologies in Latin America Water Treatment Technologies: Filtration and Other Treatment to Remove Microbial or Chemical Contaminants
    Multi-Stage Filtration: A Practical Low Cost Technology
    Experiences Introducing "New" Technology: Slow Sand Filtration
    Membrane Separation Technologies - Practical Applications
    Application of Immersed Microfiltration Membranes for Drinking Water Treatment
    Photovoltaic Electrodialysis Reversal Technology New Developments in Desalination
    Bag Filtration for Small Systems
    Appropriate Technology for Removal of Arsenic From Drinking Water of Rural West Bengal
    Sulfur-Limestone Autotropic Denitrification for Treatment of Nitrate-Contaminated Water During Fixed Bed Column Experiments
    Pre-Engineered Water Treatment Systems: Point of Entry, Point of Use, Package Plants, and Bottled Water
    Point-of-Entry (POE) and Point-of-Use (POU) Water Treatment Overview
    Selecting Residential or Personal Water Treatment Systems
    Point-of-Entry Treatment for a Small Community Point-of-Use Demonstration Project in Suffolk, VA
    Military Field Drinking Water Supply
    Package Water Treatment Plants in China, Ecuador and Mexico
    Verification Testing of Packaged Drinking Water Treatment Systems Project: Results
    Is Bottled Water a Feasible Alternative for Small Community Drinking Water Supply?
    Analytical Monitoring
    Effective Monitoring of Small Drinking Water Supplies
    Overview of Microbial Methods
    Chemical and Physical Measurement Methods for Small Systems
    Monitoring Small Water Supply Systems in the UK and Controlling the Risk of Contamination by Cryptosporidium
    Water Quality Monitoring in Canadian Aboriginal Communities
    Selection and Management of Remote Telemetry Systems for Monitoring and Operation of Small Drinking Water Treatment Plants
    Toward Global Drinking Water Quality Monitoring
    Well Remediation, Energy Sources, and Delivery of Water: Emerging Technologies and Approaches
    Impact of Well Remediation Chemicals on Water Quality and Deterioration
    Handpump Developments
    Wind-Electric Pumping Systems for Communities Solar Power Technology for Supplying Safe Drinking Water
    Systems Solutions: Management, Operation and Maintenance
    Experiences in Improvement of Safe Water Delivery to Poor Rural Communities by Including the Private Sector
    Integrated Rural Utility Systems
    Pre-Payment Metering of Water
    Area-Wide Treatment Optimization Programs Achieve Broad Scale Improvements in Drinking Water Quality
    Implementation of Water Supply Projects in Indigenous Communities of Northern Canada and Africa - Linkage of Experiences
    Management of Small Rural Systems: A Case Study in South Africa
    Experience With Implementation in Honduras, CA., of a Voluntary Water Association Sponsored Training and Technical Assistance Program Developed in the United States
    Circuit Rider Training Program in First Nations Communities
    Upgrading Small Military Water Works in Korea Upgrading Water Quality in Health Care Facilities Small Water System Assistance and Training Programs
    The Current Situation and Needs of International Assistance for Rural Water Supply in South East Asian Countries
    Overview of Canadian International Development Agency's Assistance Program
    Private Finance for Water Projects in Developing Countries
    Capacity Building and Resource Center Development in Water Supply and Sanitation The World University Service of Canada (WUSC)
    A Review of Technical Assistance and Training Programs in the United States
    Considerations in the Development of External Training Programs
    Regulatory Structures For Small Systems
    How the "Tapestry" of Integrated Provisions in the New Safe Drinking Water Act can Benefit Small Systems
    Impact of Regulatory Programs on the Quality of Drinking Water in Small Systems
    Problems and Successes of Small Systems in the Unites States
    The Case of Latin America
    South African Oversight of Small Water Supplies: North West Water Board Case Study
    Symposium Overview and Closing Remarks
    Author Index
    Exhibitor Index
    Key Word Index


    Gunther F. Craun, Joseph Cotruvo, Nancy Hearne