In Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Research at the Frontier, leading space researchers from multiple fields of expertise summarize the recent growth of knowledge, the resulting tools and techniques, and the research still needed to protect humans in space.
Making use of cutting-edge research and development related to composing, training, and supporting astronaut crews who will live and work together for future missions to Mars, this book examines the current practices of leaders in the field both at NASA and in academia. Presenting astronaut data alongside data from analogous extreme environments such as mission simulation habitats, this volume helpfully contrasts and compares to examine the lessons that can be learned from other approaches. Using the context of current International Space Station missions, the book discusses the influence of human factors and physiological health on individual and team job performance and social cohesion. With an overview of the physical and psychological hazards of space, and the challenges posed by conducting space-related applied psychology research, this volume uses the context of a long-duration Mars mission as a lens through which to discuss adaptation and resilience, technical and team training, technological advances related to working and living in space, and human interaction with onboard systems. Additionally, the book includes an essay from retired astronaut Clay Anderson on his experiences in space and thoughts on future missions to the moon and Mars.
This first of two volumes will be of interest to professionals in the field of human factors and psychology at work, as well as academics examining human performance in extreme environments and aerospace.
Table of Contents
Introduction. Section 1: Challenges of Studying Psychological Concepts in Extreme Environments. 1. Environment and Physiological Changes. 2. Analogs and Physiological and Psychological Fidelity. 3. Conducting Research in Analogs. 4. Qualitative Research in Extreme Environments. 5. Technological Advances in IO and Extreme Environments. Section 2: Composing and Training Crews. 6. Team Composition. 7. Methods of (technical) Training to Enhance Retention. 8. Resilience and Adaptability. 9. Multi-Cultural Training and Perspective. 10. Leadership/ Followership. 11. Teamwork. 12. Team Orientation and Group Living Skills. Section 3: Supporting Crews. 13. Psychosocial Adaptation. 14. Multi-Team Systems. 15. Habitability. 16. Human Factors Design. 17. Human-Computer and Automation Integration.
Dr. Lauren Blackwell Landon is the Team Risk Discipline Scientist in the Human Factors and Behavioral Performance (HFBP) Element, a division of the NASA Human Research Program. In addition to overseeing team-oriented psychological research at NASA, she also conducts research in the HFBP Behavioral Health and Performance Laboratory. Her research targets teams in extreme environments, examining the influence of individual and team-oriented characteristics, and teamwork processes and team cognition as it affects team performance and functioning. She has a Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology, and has published 15 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters and an edited book “Team Dynamics Over Time.”
Dr. Kelley Slack is a Senior Researcher on the operations side of Behavioral Health and Performance at NASA Johnson Space Center where she is involved with the psychological selection of astronauts. Dr. Slack is also a founding member of Minerva Work Solutions, an industrial-organizational consulting firm that provides evidence-based team training and team building, organizational development, and executive coaching. Her interests include resilience and adaptation in extreme environments and training soft skills. Dr. Slack has a Ph.D. in Industrial-Organizational Psychology and is a licensed psychologist in the State of Texas. She has published over 20 book chapters and articles in peer-reviewed psychological and aeronautical journals.
Dr. Eduardo Salas is the Allyn R. and Gladys M. Cline Chair, Professor, and Department Chair at Rice University. His research interests are uncovering what facilitates teamwork and team effectiveness in organizations; how and why team training work; how to optimize simulation-based training; how to design, implement, and evaluate training and development systems and generating evidence-based guidance for those in practice. Dr. Salas is a former president of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. The author of hundreds of research articles and dozens of academic books, he has also received many awards including the American Psychological Association’s Award for Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology.