The ninth edition of Public Administration: Understanding Management, Politics, and Law in the Public Sector grounds students in the fundamentals of public administration while embracing its complexity. It describes, explains, and analyzes public administration through the lenses of three well-established perspectives: management, politics, and law. In addition to thoroughly refreshed examples and case studies, significant updates to this new edition include the following:
- The discussion of management has been collapsed into a single category, contemporary public management, to better reflect the blending of traditional/orthodox and new public management approaches in the field.
- Significant changes to federal administration initiated by the Trump administration, the emergence of "hyper-" partisanship, major court decisions affecting public administration, and newer scholarship and foci in public administration.
- A thoroughly rewritten chapter on budgeting and public finance.
- New public governance material is incorporated throughout the book, including collaborative models for coordinating administration with private organizations, particularly nonprofits.
- Additional attention is paid to public participation in public administration, including public administration's potential contribution to strengthening democratic citizenship.
- Thorough discussion of the latest managerial techniques and concepts as well as the contemporary performance orientation in the public sector.
- Downloadable instructor support materials including Key Points, Discussion and/or Test Questions, Multiple Choice Questions, True or False Questions, and an Answer Key to accompany each chapter in the book.
Together these revisions reinvigorate the book yet retain its core structure, ideas, and familiarity for students and instructors alike. While the new edition retains its focus on the U.S. context, the focus on managerial, legislative, and judicial functions lends itself well to public administration in many developed nations, making the book a popular choice with instructors around the globe. This time-tested and fully up-to-date textbook is required reading for all students of public administration, public management, and nonprofit management.
Table of Contents
Preface. PART I Introduction: Definitions, Concepts, and Settings CHAPTER 1
The Contemporary Practice and Discipline of Public Administration: Managerial, Political and Policy, and Legal Perspectives. Some Definitions. Constitutions. The Public Interest. Public Value and Public Values. The Market. Sovereignty. Regulation and Service. Managerial, Political and policy, and Legal Approaches. The Managerial Approach to Public Administration. Traditional Managerial Legacies in Contemporary Public Administration. Organizational Structure. View of the Individual Cognitive Approach. Resource Allocation. Decision Making. The Contributions of New Public Management to the Contemporary Managerial Approach. Organizational Structure. View of the Individual. Cognitive Approach. Resource Allocation. Decision Making. Human Resources Management. The Political and Policy Approach to Public Administration. Organizational Structure. Cognitive Approach. View of the Individual. Resource Allocation. Decision Making. Human Resources Management. The Legal Approach to Public Administration. Main Sources. Constitutional law. Increasing Relevance of the Law. Legal Values. Organizational Structure. View of the Individual. Cognitive Approach. Resource Allocation. Decision Making. Human Resources Management. From New Public Management to New Public Governance: Current Trends in Public Administration. Broadening Performance Measurement. Using Networks, Partnerships, and Collaborative Coproduction. Capacity Building. Civic Participation and Engagement. Conflict Resolution. Conclusion: Public Administration Reconsidered. STUDY QUESTIONS/ADDITIONAL READING/PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEORY WEB SITES. CHAPTER 2 The American Administrative State: Development and Political Environment. The Rise of the American Administrative State. The Political and Policy Roots of the American Administrative State. Goals of Government. Public Policy. "Third-Party Government". Drivers of Growth. The Legal Origins of American Public Administration. Regulation. Balancing Liberty and Equality. The Administrative Procedure Act. The Managerial Origins of the Contemporary American Administrative State. Administrative Authority and Responsibility. The Paradox of Administrative Power. Administrative Independence. Public Policy Making. Responses to the Rise of the Administrative State. The President and Public Administration. The Mythical Presidency. Limits to Presidential Authority. Tools of Presidential Management. Congress and the Administrative State. The Courts: A Judicial Response to Modern Public Administration, Strengthening and Articulating Constitutional Rights. Stricter Scrutiny of Administrative Decisions. Public Law Litigation or Remedial Law. Liability and Immunity. Interest Groups. Advisory Committees. Negotiated Rule Making. Legislative Review of Rules. Other Avenues of Influence. Public Employee Unions and Contractors’ Associations. The Public. Political Parties. State and Local Governments. Extensions to the Administrative State. The Managerial Approach. The Political and Policy Approach. The Legal Approach. Conclusion: The Administrative State. Study Questions/Additional Reading/Federal, State, and Local Web Sites/Notes. CHAPTER 3 Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations. The Structure of the American Administrative State. Why Federalism? The Political Approach. What Federalism Does. Dual Sovereignty. Bicameralism. Multiple Layers of Representation. Administrative Decentralization: The Managerial Approach. The Quest for Uniformity: The Legal Approach. The Fourteenth Amendment. The Commerce Clause. The Tenth Amendment. The Eleventh Amendment. Evolving Models of American Federalism. American Government: The Building Blocks. Municipalities. Townships. Counties. School Districts and Other Special Districts. States. Federal. Intergovernmental Relations. Federal-State Relations and Fiscal Federalism. "Horizontal Federalism": Interstate Relations. Relationships among Local Governments. Conclusion: Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations. Study Questions/Additional Reading/Federalism Web Sites/Notes. PART II Introduction: Definitions, Concepts, and Settings. CHAPTER 4. Core Functions. Organization: Structure and Process. Organizations and Organization Theory. What Are Organizations? Organization Theory. Commonalities in Public Administrative Organizations. Bureaucracy. Scientific Management. The Human Relations Approach. Leadership. Motivation. Contemporary Approaches to Organization Theory. Managerial Perspectives on Public Organizations . Orthodox Public Administration: POSDCORB. Challenges to the Orthodoxy. What Will Replace POSDCORB. The Political and Policy Approach to Public Organizations. Pluralism. Autonomy. The Legislative Connection. Decentralization. A Checklist of Political Questions on Administrative Organization. The Legal Approach to Public Organizations. Independence. The Commission Format. Insulation from Ex Parte Influences. Independent Hearing Examiners – Administrative Law Judges. Staffing for Adjudication. Alternative Dispute Resolution. Conclusion: The Future . Fundamental Assumptions. Democratic Organization. Market-Based Organization. The Networked Organization. New Public Governance, an Emerging Synthesis of Trends? Study Questions / Notes / Additional Readings. CHAPTER 5 Public Personnel Administration and Collective Bargaining. Historical Background. Public Personnel Administration According to "Gentlemen". Public Personnel Administration According to "Spoils". Public Personnel Administration According to "Merit". Management, Politics and Policy, and Law in Public Personnel Administration. Civil Service Reform, 1978. HRM Reform in the 1990s through the 2010s. Managerial Public Personnel Administration. Position Classification. Recruitment, Selection, and Promotion. Performance Appraisal. Pay. Workforce Planning. Cutbacks. Quality of Work Life (QWL). Political Neutrality. The Political and Policy Approach to Public Personnel Administration. Responsiveness. Representativeness. The Legal Approach to Public Personnel Administration. The Constitutional Rights of Public Employees and Applicants. The Liability and Immunity of Public Employees. Collective Bargaining and Labor-Management Partnerships. Collective Bargaining. Labor-Management Partnerships. Conclusions: Three Possible Futures for HRM. Study Questions / Notes / Additional Readings. CHAPTER 6 Budgeting and the Public Finances The Size and Growth of Budgets. Sources of Revenues. Revenue Evaluation Criteria. Governmental Fiscal Policy Making. The National Debt: Is it a Burden? The Federal Budgetary Process. Stages in the Budgetary Process. The Distinction between Authority and Appropriations. The Continuing Saga of the Budget: Execution. Continuing Problem Areas. A Budget Theory or Theories about Budgeting? The Managerial Approach to Public Budgeting. The Political and Policy Approach to Public Budgeting. The Legal Influence on Budgeting. Study Questions / Notes / Additional Readings / Budgeting Websites. CHAPTER 7 Decision Making. Practical Realities: "Small World" and "Large World" Decisions. The Traditional Managerial Approach to Decision Making. Specialization. Hierarchy. Formalization. Merit. The Rational-Comprehensive Model. Critique of the Rational-Comprehensive Model. The Political and Policy Approach to Decision Making: The Incremental Model. Components of the Incremental Model. Incrementalism and Small- and Large-World Problems. A Critique of the Incremental Model. The Legal Approach to Decision Making. Advantages of Adjudication. Critique of Adjudication as a Decision Making Model. The Case of Benzene in the Workplace. New Public Management and New Public Governance Approaches to Decision Making. New Public Management and Decision-Making. New Public Governance and Decision-Making. The Impact of Context on Decision Making. Individual Level: Recognition-Primed Decision Model. Organizational Level: The Governmental Process Model and Decision-Making Inside the "Garbage Can" Conclusion: Synthesizing Decision Making Approaches. What to Avoid. Impact of Information Technology. Study Questions / Notes / Additional Readings / Budgeting Websites. PART III. The Convergence of Management, Politics and Policy, and Law in the Public Sector. CHAPTER 8. Policy Analysis and Implementation Evaluation. The Growing Concern with Policy Analysis. Approaches to Analyzing Public Policies. Outcomes Analysis. Process Analysis and Implementation Studies. Big Data: An Emerging Methodology in Policy Analysis. Implementation Evaluation. Managerial Perspectives on Implementation. Contemporary Public Management. Discretion, Customer Satisfaction, and Performance. Monitoring and Measuring Performance. The Political and Policy Perspective on Implementation. Representation. Responsiveness. Accountability. The Legal Perspectives on Implementation. Constitutional Integrity. Equal Protection. Procedural Due Process and Protection of Individual Rights. Estoppel. Using Analysis and Evaluation. Conclusion: The Complexity of Policy Design. Study Questions / Notes / Additional Readings. CHAPTER 9. Regulatory Administration. An Illustration of Management, Politics, and Law in the Public Sector. Key Learning Objectives. The Development and Growth of Regulatory Administration. Origins of Government Regulation. Market Failure. Regulatory Federalism. Regulatory Policy and Administration. Political Patterns. Social Factors. The Structure and Process of Regulatory Administration. Independent Regulatory Commissions (IRCs). Regulatory Agencies. Rule Making. Adjudication. Common Criticisms of Regulatory Administration. Regulation Is Expensive. Regulation Dampens Economic Performance. Regulation Produces Delay, Extravagant Red Tape, and Paperwork. Incompetence and Impropriety. Overinclusiveness of Regulation. Determining Success. DEREGULATION AND REGULATORY REFORM. Deregulation. Behavioral Economics and "Nudging". Formal and Informal Rule Making. Negotiated Rule Making. Perspectives on Regulatory Administration. Traditional Managerial Legacies for Regulatory Administration. The New Public Management Contributions to Contemporary Regulatory Management. The Political Approach to Regulatory Administration. The Legal Approach to Regulatory Administration. Conclusion: Synthesizing Approaches toward Regulatory Administration. Study Questions. Additional Reading. REGULATORY AFFAIRS WEB SITES. NOTES. PART IV. Public Administration and the Public. CHAPTER 10. Public Administration and the Public. The Public’s Interaction with Public Administration. Clients Customers. The Regulated Public. Participants. Litigants. Street-Level Encounters. Contractors. The Individual in the Administrative State. The Individual in Society. The Individual in the Political System. The Individual in the Economy. The Public’s Evaluation of Public Administration. Client and Customer Satisfaction. A Look at Typical Government Services. Public Administrative Approach to the Public. The Managerial Approach to the Public. The Political and Policy Approach to the Public. The Legal Approach to the Public. Conclusion: Putting the Public Back in Public Administration. Study Questions / Notes / Additional Resources. CHAPTER 11. Public Administration and Democratic Constitutionalism. Key Learning Objectives. Why Public Administrators Must Understand the Constitution. Administrative Structure and Constitutional Structure. Administrative Separation of Functions. Constitutional Separation of Powers. Collapse of the Separation of Powers. The Phillips Case. Administrative Discretion and "Guerrilla Government". The Three "Masters" of Public Administration. Constitutional Values. Legitimacy. Diversity among the Citizenry. Freedom and Liberty. Property Rights. Procedural Due Process. Equal Protection. Individuality. Fourth Amendment Privacy Rights. Equity. State Action. Conclusion: An Ongoing Partnership. Study Questions. Additional Reading. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW WEB SITES. Notes. CHAPTER 12. Accountability and Ethics. Why the Guardians Need Guarding. Misconception of the Public Interest. Corruption. Subversion. Why It Is Difficult to Guard the Guardians. The Accretion of Special Expertise and Information. The Advantage of Full-Time Status. The Protective Nature of Personnel Systems. The "Law of Counter Control". The Problem of Coordination. The Lack of Political Direction. The Fragmentation of Agency Structures and Functions. The Large Size and Scope of Public Administration. "Third-Party" Government. Ethics and Public Administrators: Three Broad Approaches to Ethical Decision Making. Perspectives on Accountability and Ethics. The Traditional Managerial Perspective. Recent Variants: New Public Management and New Public Governance. The Political and Policy Perspective. The Legal Perspective. Conclusion: Personal Responsibility. Study Questions / Notes / Additional Readings / Government Ethics Websites. CHAPTER 13. The Future. Key Learning Objectives. LESSONS TO BE LEARNED. Presidential Authority Over the Federal Executive Branch. Complexity. Public Administration Will Be Defined by Politics. Law Will Continue to Be Central to Public Administration. Performance. Disaggregation of Public Administration. Fragmentation of the Civil Service. The Changing Face of Management. Personal Responsibility. Conclusion: A New Administrative Culture. Study Questions. Additional Readings. Public Administration Web Sites. Notes. Glossary. Credits. Index.
David H. Rosenbloom is Distinguished Professor of Public Administration at American University in Washington, DC.
Robert S. Kravchuk is Professor of Public Affairs in the O’Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.
Richard M. Clerkin is Professor MPA Director in the Department of Public Administration in the School of Public and International Affairs at North Carolina State University.
"This book is precisely what the field needs at this moment. By examining public administration through the lens of management, politics, and the law, students walk away with a complete understanding of how the field is shaped by multiple competing, and at times, conflicting forces. Also, by taking a longer historical view, students see how the field has changed over time. Students can see the triumphs and failures of various efforts and learn how to make informed decisions in the future. I am sure that this book will be adopted by programs around the world."
Domonic Bearfield, Rutgers University Newark, USA
"At a time of immense public challenges, this updated classic masterfully coaches the next generation of public servants in the areas of management, politics, and law. The authors present balanced and thorough assessments of current issues facing public organizations, public personnel, public budgeting and finance, decision making, policy analysis, ethics, and evaluation. This is a first-rate textbook for public administration courses around the world."
Rosemary O’Leary, University of Kansas, USA
"I've used this text for many years and across multiple editions. Students enjoy the relevant examples and practice-oriented implications. Pedagogically, I enjoy the fact that the book is organized around one of the key theories of public administration: separation of powers. Having a theoretically informed, constitutionally-based foundation on which to introduce students to public administration makes a tremendous difference. Students often ask how an MPA differs from an MBA. This book is one of the best teaching resources that I've found to not only engage this general question but also to subsequently train students in the unique and exciting practice of public service."
Robert K. Christensen, Brigham Young University, USA
"My graduate students always appreciate this textbook that clearly presents the perspectives and complexity of public administration based on three competing outlooks in the managerial, political, and legal horizons. This book guides students to understand what good public administration should be through a seamless balance of all three aspects. This book’s compelling beauty is to offer a solid ground to students who have always struggled to define the boundaries of where public administration should be headed. Incorporating new public governance into this new edition gives students more flavors to tackle emerging and wicked public administration challenges."
Younhee Kim, Pennsylvania State University Harrisburg, USA