This book aims to provide a critical analysis of both political and professional developments in policy and practice relating to non-custodial penalties, taking full account of recent developments and the creation of a National Probation Service in 2002. Its aim is to unravel the complex institutional goals (the role of community punishment in the criminal justice system), professional goals (what can be achieved by community punishment) and political goals (the packaging and 'sale' of community punishment to the law-abiding public). The central focus is on principles and politics of community punishment, and on the changing role of the probation service.
Introduction Part 1: The principles and politics of community punishment 1. Introducing community penalties 2. From alternatives to custody to punishment in the community 3. The Criminal Justice Act 1991 and its demise 4. Constructing the punishing community Part 2: The changing role of the Probation Service 5. From 'advise, assist and befriend' via 'confront, control and monitor' to 'enforcement, rehabilitation and public protection' 6. Taking the 'social' out of inquiry reports 7. Demanding but not degrading? The appeal of community punishment and electronic monitoring 8. From counselling to instruction: the development of 'help' in probation discourse 9. Unacceptable crimes or unacceptable criminals? Sex offenders 10. Unacceptable crimes or unacceptable criminals? Juvenile delinquents 11. The future of punishment in the community. Recommended further reading