Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition explores models and methods of quantitative ecotoxicology at progressively higher biological scales using worked examples and common software packages. It complements the author’s previous books, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition and Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment.
Encouraging a more rigorous inferential approach to research, the book examines the quantitative features of the science of ecotoxicology. The first chapters lay the foundation by introducing fundamental concepts and definitions. The author traces the historical perspective, rationale, and characteristics of scientific ecotoxicology as well as the general measurement process. He also considers methodologies for defining and controlling variance, which could otherwise exclude valid conclusions from ecotoxicological endeavors.
The book then discusses ecotoxicological concepts at increasing levels of ecological organization and outlines quantitative methods used to measure toxicant accumulation and effects. Reflecting the importance of establishing type I and type II error rates, it highlights design issues, particularly sample size and power estimation. The final chapter summarizes the book with a brief discussion of ecotoxicology from a nonregulatory perspective.
Extensively updated, this second edition has been expanded to include terrestrial as well as aquatic ecotoxicology. Requiring only a basic knowledge of statistics, this highly readable book is suitable for graduate students and researchers as well as practicing environmental scientists and engineers. It guides readers to better understand the fate and effects of toxicants in the biosphere—and helps them frame this understanding in quantitative terms.
What’s New in This Edition
- More than 40 new figures and 20 new worked examples
- Updated measurement quality methods and software
- Expanded coverage of synecological models and methods
- More integration of Bayesian concepts
- Appendices for power analysis and basic matrix methods
- Additional mixture toxicity and up-and-down methods
- Greatly expanded discussion of significance testing
- Expanded discussion of metapopulations
- Matrix tools for population demography
- Light isotope-based models for trophic transfer of toxicants
- Inclusion of metacommunity and SHE analysis techniques
R script examples by Eduard Szöcs (University Koblenz-Landau) available at http://edild.github.io/blog/categories/quantitative-ecotoxicology-with-r/
Table of Contents
Ecotoxicology as a Scientific Discipline
Toxicants and Biosphere
Toxicant Effects in Ecosystems
Toxicant Fate in Ecosystems
Organization of Knowledge Based on Explanatory Principles
Toward Strongest Possible Inference and Clear Ecological Relevance
The Measurement Process
Regions of Quantitation
Accuracy and Precision
Modeling Bioaccumulation: General Approach
Modeling Bioaccumulation: Alternative Approaches
Intrinsic Factors Affecting Bioaccumulation
Lethal and Other Quantal Responses to Stress
Dose-Response at a Set Endpoint
Time to Death
Quantifying the Effects of Extrinsic Factors
Quantifying Effects of Intrinsic Factors
Statistical Tests for Detection of Chronic Lethal and Sublethal Stress
One-Way Analysis of Variance
Test of Normality: Shapiro–Wilk’s Test
Test for Homogeneity of Variances: Bartlett’s Test
Treatment Means Compared to the Control Mean
Monotonic Trend: Williams’s Test
Steel’s Multiple Treatment-Control Rank Sum Test
Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test with Bonferroni’s Adjustment
A Second Look at Statistical Testing
Inferring Biological Significance from Statistical Significance
Population and Metapopulation Effects
Spatial Distribution of Individuals
Simple Species Interactions
Community Structure and Function
Facilitating Growth of the Science
Appendix 1: Factors for Estimating Standard Deviation and Control Limits for Range
Appendix 2: One-Sample Tolerance Probability Comparisons between nm* and nm
Appendix 3: Critical Values of T Used to Test for Single Outliers (One-Sided Test)
Appendix 4: Critical Values for λ Used to Test for Multiple Outliers (α = 0.05)
Appendix 5: Response Metameters for Proportion Affected
Appendix 6: Maximum Likelihood Values for Dixon’s Up-and-Down Method
Appendix 7: E Values Used to Estimate 95% Confidence Intervals for LT50 with the
Appendix 8: Coefficients (an–i+1) for Shapiro–Wilk’s Test for Normality
Appendix 9: Percentage Points of Shapiro–Wilk’s W Test for Normality
Appendix 10: Dunnett’s t for One-Sided Comparisons between p Treatment Means and a Control for α = 0.05
Appendix 11: Dunnett’s t for Two-Sided Comparisons between p Treatment Means and a Control for α = 0.05
Appendix 12: Bonferroni’s Adjusted t Values for One-Sided Test and α = 0.01
Appendix 13: Bonferroni’s Adjusted t Values for One-Sided Test and α = 0.05
Appendix 14: Bonferroni’s Adjusted t Values for Two-Sided Test and α = 0.01
Appendix 15: Bonferroni’s Adjusted t Values for Two-Sided Test and α = 0.05
Appendix 16: Dunn–Šidák’s t for Comparisons between p Treatment Means and a Control for α = 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 (One-Sided Test)
Appendix 17: Dunn–Šidák’s t for Comparisons between p Treatment Means and a Control for α = 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 (Two-Sided Test)
Appendix 18: Williams’s ti,α for w = 1 and Extrapolation βt (Superscript) for a One-Sided Test and α = 0.01
Appendix 19: Williams’s ti,α for w = 1 and Extrapolation βt (Superscript) for a One-Sided Test and α = 0.05
Appendix 20: Williams’s ti,α for w = 1 and Extrapolation βt (Superscript) for a Two-Sided Test and α = 0.01
Appendix 21: Williams’s ti,α for w = 1 and Extrapolation βt (Superscript) for a Two-Sided Test and α = 0.05
Appendix 22: Significant Values of Steel’s Rank Sums for a One-Sided Test with α = 0.05 or 0.01
Appendix 23: Significant Values of Steel’s Rank Sums for a Two-Sided Test with α = 0.05 or 0.01
Appendix 24: Wilcoxon (Mann–Whitney) Rank-Sum Test Critical Values with Bonferroni’s Adjustments: One-Sided Test and α = 0.05
Appendix 25: Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test Critical Values with Bonferroni’s Adjustments: Two-Sided Test and α = 0.05
Appendix 26: SAS Code for Implementing the Jonckheere–Terpstra Test
Appendix 27: Balancing α, β, and Effect Size (ES)
Appendix 28: Basic Matrix Methods
Appendix 29: Values of θ Used for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Mean and Standard Deviation of Truncated Data
Michael C. Newman is currently the A. Marshall Acuff Jr. Professor of Marine Science at the College of William and Mary’s Virginia Institute of Marine Science, where he also served as Dean of Graduate Studies for the School of Marine Sciences from 1999 to 2002. His research interests include quantitative ecotoxicology, environmental statistics, risk assessment, population effects of contaminants, metal chemistry and effects, and bioaccumulation and biomagnification modeling. In addition to more than 125 articles, he has authored five books and edited another six on these topics. The English edition and Mandarin and Turkish translations of Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology have been adopted widely as the textbook for introductory ecotoxicology courses.
Featured Author Profiles
"...without a doubt a book that all aspiring and practicing ecotoxicologists should read and re-read time and time again. With each reading, as the reader learns more, new insights will be gained from this excellent book…This book is not satisfied with presenting the status quo in a recipe type manner, but discusses the limitations of the methods and gently but firmly challenges all ecotoxicologists to lift our game, become more rigorous, and contribute to the development of our branch of science."
––Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, January 2014
"This book provides a very fundamental view of ecotoxicology from the perspective of quantitative analysis. It covers all the ecological aspects of toxicology. Overall, it will be an excellent book for students interested in environmental science."
—Wen-Xiong Wang, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon
"Mike Newman’s Quantitative Ecotoxicology provides a unique and much-needed addition to the ecotoxicological literature. He covers the most important ecotoxicological concepts (bioaccumulation, lethal and nonlethal responses to stress at the individual level, population and metapopulation effects, and community effects) and effectively combines these with the appropriate quantitative options and considerations for assessing these processes. This book is like an ecotoxicology text and statistics text rolled into one."
—Valery E. Forbes, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA
"... a sound and thorough update from the first edition. It is well written in common language for ecologists to understand."
—James Oris, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, USA
Praise for the Highly Cited First Edition
"... a refreshing and highly readable treatment of the quantitative aspects of ecotoxicology that can be appreciated by readers with varying degrees of mathematical expertise. ... this book will be of tremendous value to beginning graduate students in ecotoxicology as well as to researchers seeking to add more quantitative rigor to their research questions."
—William H. Clements, Colorado State University, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
"... excellent text ... a rara avis."
—Glenn Suter, SETAC Globe
"... an important contribution to the science. Dr. Newman should be commended for his excellent text."
—Gary Rand, SETAC Globe