1st Edition

Racial and Prejudicial Stereotyping by Police Its Impact on Investigative Interviewing and the Outcomes of Criminal Investigations

By Rashid Minhas Copyright 2024
    244 Pages 1 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This book uncovers the influence of racial and prejudicial stereotyping during police investigation of suspects from stigmatised communities. The book examines the under-researched aspect of whether and how negative stereotypes appear to influence the police interviews, investigative decision-making, and outcomes of criminal investigations when officers investigate individuals from stigmatised communities as suspects of crime.

    In the United Kingdom, the United States, and Europe, the war on terror has been argued to impact adversely on existing race relations policies in the aftermath of terrorist activity in both the United States and Europe. Recent research has suggested that changes in legislation and counterterrorism measures have contributed to the construction and reinforcement of the Muslim community as a suspect, which, in turn, may result in police bias and prejudice towards members of Muslim communities. Based on novel and groundbreaking research studies, the author examines whether such police bias could influence the police investigation and interviewing processes concerning individuals from the suspect community as well as the outcome of a criminal investigation.

    The author introduces the Minhas Investigative Interviewing Prejudicial Stereotyping Scale (MIIPSS), an instrument developed and used to assess the level of police interviewers’ racial and prejudicial stereotyping towards suspects from stigmatised groups, and maintains that its use would serve to minimise the influence of racial and prejudicial stereotypes on investigation. It is further suggested that the training of police officers on the implications of such prejudicial (racial/ religious) stereotyping is essential to improving interviewing performance, case outcomes, and community cohesion.

    This book will benefit academics, researchers, police officers, lawyers, social policy officers, and probation officers across the globe.

    1.     Introduction

    2.     Police Investigative and Interviewing Practices: Addressing Suspect Community Stereotyping

    3.     Police Stop-and-Search Practices: Reasonable Suspicion or Stereotypical Suspicion?

    4.     Measuring Prejudicial Stereotyping in Investigative and Interviewing Processes Within Criminal Investigations

    5.     Perceptions of Suspects from Muslim Communities Regarding Police Interviewing Practices: A Qualitative Study

    6.     Perceptions of English Defence Lawyers on Police Interviewing Practices: An In-depth Exploration

    7.     Impact of Racial and Prejudicial Stereotypes on the Outcome of Criminal Investigations

    8.     Discussion and Conclusions—Tackling Prejudicial Stereotyping in Criminal Investigations: The Basics



    Rashid Minhas is a distinguished criminologist and esteemed academic who has dedicated his career to the study of policing, racial and prejudicial stereotyping in criminal investigations, investigative decision-making, and police interviewing practices. He is currently affiliated with the University of West London’s School of Human and Social Sciences. With a strong educational background, Rashid earned his PhD in Criminal Justice and Social Psychology, demonstrating his commitment to exploring the complex intersections between criminology, psychology, and the criminal justice system. Rashid’s work has been widely published in reputable academic journals, earning him recognition and respect within the scholarly community. Rashid’s insightful publications shed light on critical issues surrounding criminal justice, offering practical insights and recommendations to improve investigative processes and ensure fairness in the criminal justice system.

    "In this innovative book, Dr. Minhas closely examines the evidence regarding the impact of racial and prejudicial stereotyping on (i) investigative interviewing and (ii) the outcomes of criminal investigations. He notes that police officers are not immune to such effects and offers solutions to the problems that can arise both for the police and for members of stigmatised communities."

    —Professor Ray Bull, Emeritus Professor of Forensic Psychology, University of Leicester