1st Edition

Radiation Detection Concepts, Methods, and Devices

    1312 Pages 753 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Radiation Detection: Concepts, Methods, and Devices provides a modern overview of radiation detection devices and radiation measurement methods. The book topics have been selected on the basis of the authors’ many years of experience designing radiation detectors and teaching radiation detection and measurement in a classroom environment.

    This book is designed to give the reader more than a glimpse at radiation detection devices and a few packaged equations. Rather it seeks to provide an understanding that allows the reader to choose the appropriate detection technology for a particular application, to design detectors, and to competently perform radiation measurements. The authors describe assumptions used to derive frequently encountered equations used in radiation detection and measurement, thereby providing insight when and when not to apply the many approaches used in different aspects of radiation detection. Detailed in many of the chapters are specific aspects of radiation detectors, including comprehensive reviews of the historical development and current state of each topic. Such a review necessarily entails citations to many of the important discoveries, providing a resource to find quickly additional and more detailed information.

    This book generally has five main themes:

    • Physics and Electrostatics needed to Design Radiation Detectors
    • Properties and Design of Common Radiation Detectors
    • Description and Modeling of the Different Types of Radiation Detectors
    • Radiation Measurements and Subsequent Analysis
    • Introductory Electronics Used for Radiation Detectors

    Topics covered include atomic and nuclear physics, radiation interactions, sources of radiation, and background radiation. Detector operation is addressed with chapters on radiation counting statistics, radiation source and detector effects, electrostatics for signal generation, solid-state and semiconductor physics, background radiations, and radiation counting and spectroscopy. Detectors for gamma-rays, charged-particles, and neutrons are detailed in chapters on gas-filled, scintillator, semiconductor, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, photographic film, and a variety of other detection devices.

    1 Origins
    1.1 A Brief History of Radiation Discovery
    1.2 A Brief History of Radiation Detectors

    2 Introduction to Nuclear Instrumentation
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 The Detector
    2.3 Nuclear Instrumentation
    2.4 History of NIM Development
    2.5 NIM components
    2.6 CAMAC
    2.7 Nuclear Instruments other than NIM or CAMAC
    2.8 Cables and Connectors

    3 Basic Atomic and Nuclear Physics
    3.1 Modern Physics Concepts
    3.2 Highlights in the Evolution of Atomic Theory
    3.3 Development of the Modern Atom Model
    3.4 Quantum Mechanics
    3.5 The Fundamental Constituents of Ordinary Matter
    3.6 Nuclear Reactions
    3.7 Radioactivity

    4 Radiation Interactions
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation
    4.3 Scattering Interactions
    4.4 Photon Cross Sections
    4.5 Neutron Interactions
    4.6 Charged-Particle Interactions

    5 Sources of Radiation
    5.2 Sources of Gamma Rays
    5.3 Sources of X Rays
    5.4 Sources of Neutrons
    5.5 Sources of Charged Particles
    5.6 Cosmic Rays

    6 Probability and Statistics for Radiation Counting
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Probability and Cumulative Distribution Functions
    6.3 Mode, Mean and Median
    6.4 Variance and Standard Deviation of a PDF
    6.5 Probability Data Distributions
    6.6 Binomial Distribution
    6.6.1 Radioactive Decay and the Binomial Distribution
    6.7 Poisson Distribution
    6.8 Gaussian or Normal Distribution
    6.9 Error Propagation
    6.10 Data Interpretation

    7 Source and Detector Effects
    7.1 Detector Efficiency
    7.2 Source Effects
    7.3 Detector Effects
    7.4 Geometric Effects: View Factors
    7.5 Geometric Corrections: Detector Parallax Effects

    8 Essential Electrostatics
    8.1 Electric Field
    8.2 Electrical Potential Energy
    8.3 Capacitance
    8.4 Current and Stored Energy
    8.5 Basics of Charge Induction
    8.6 Charge Induction for a Planar Detector
    8.7 Charge Induction for a Cylindrical Detector
    8.8 Charge Induction for Spherical and Hemispherical Detectors
    8.9 Concluding Remarks

    9 Gas-Filled Detectors: Ion Chambers
    9.1 General Operation
    9.2 Electrons and Ions in Gas
    9.3 Recombination
    9.4 Ion Chamber Operation
    9.5 Ion Chamber Designs
    9.6 Summary

    10 Gas-Filled Detectors: Proportional Counters
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 General Operation
    10.3 Townsend Avalanche Multiplication
    10.4 Gas Dependence
    10.5 Proportional Counter Operation
    10.6 Selected Proportional Counter Variations

    11 Gas-Filled Detectors: Geiger-M¨uller Counters
    11.1 Geiger Discharge
    11.2 Basic Design
    11.3 Fill Gases
    11.4 Pulse Shape
    11.5 Radiation Measurements
    11.6 Special G-M Counter Designs
    11.7 Commercial G-M Counters

    12 Review of Solid State Physics
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Solid State Physics
    12.3 Quantum Mechanics
    12.4 Semiconductor Physics
    12.5 Charge Transport
    12.6 Summary

    13 Scintillation Detectors and Materials
    13.1 Scintillation Detectors
    13.2 Inorganic Scintillators
    13.3 Organic Scintillators
    13.4 Gaseous Scintillators

    14 Light Collection Devices
    14.1 Photomultiplier Tubes
    14.2 Semiconductor Photodetectors

    15 Basics of Semiconductor Detector Devices
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Charge Carrier Collection
    15.3 Basic Semiconductor Detector Configurations
    15.4 Measurements of Semiconductor Detector Properties
    15.5 Charge Induction

    16 Semiconductor Devices

    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 General Semiconductor Properties
    16.3 Semiconductor Detector Applications
    16.4 Detectors Based on Group IV Materials
    16.5 Compound Semiconductor Detectors
    16.6 Additional Semiconductors of Interest
    16.7 Summary

    17 Slow Neutron Detectors
    17.1 Cross Sections in the 1/v Region
    17.2 Slow Neutron Reactions Used for Neutron Detection
    17.3 Gas-Filled Slow Neutron Detectors
    17.4 Scintillator Slow Neutron Detectors
    17.5 Semiconductor Slow Neutron Detectors
    17.6 Neutron Diffraction
    17.7 Calibration of Slow Neutron Detectors
    17.8 Neutron Detection by Foil Activation
    17.9 Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND)
    17.10 Time-of-Flight Methods

    18 Fast Neutron Detectors
    18.1 Detection Mechanisms
    18.2 Detectors Based on Moderation
    18.3 Detectors Based on Recoil Scattering
    18.4 Semiconductor Fast Neutron Detectors
    18.5 Detectors Based on Absorption Reactions
    18.6 Summary

    19 Luminescent and Additional Detectors
    19.1 Luminescent Dosimeters
    19.2 Photographic Film
    19.3 Track Detectors
    19.4 Cryogenic Detectors
    19.5 Wavelength-Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS)
    19.6 ˇCerenkov (Cherenkov) Detectors

    20 Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Basic Concepts
    20.3 Detector Response Models
    20.4 Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy
    20.5 Radiation Spectroscopy Measurements
    20.6 Factors Affecting Energy Resolution
    20.7 Experimental Design
    20.8 Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy—Summary
    20.9 Charged-Particle Spectroscopy

    21 Mitigating Background
    21.1 Sources of Background Radiation
    21.2 Mitigation of the Radiation Background
    21.3 Self-Absorption of Photons
    21.4 Electronic Methods for Background Reduction

    22 Nuclear Electronics
    22.1 Mathematical Transforms
    22.2 Pulse Shaping
    22.3 Components
    22.4 Timing
    22.5 Coincidence and Anti-Coincidence
    22.6 Instrumentation Standards
    22.7 Electronic Noise
    22.8 Coaxial Cables

    A Basic Atomic Data and Conversion Factors
    A.1 Fundamental Physical Constants
    A.2 The Periodic Table
    A.3 Physical Properties and Abundances of Elements
    A.4 SI Units
    A.5 Internet Data Sources

    B Cross Sections and Related Data
    B.1 Data Tables
    B.1.1 Thermal Neutron Interactions
    B.1.2 Photon Interactions


    Douglas S. McGregor is a University Distinguished Professor in Kansas State University (KSU) and holds the Boyd D. Brainard Chair in Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering. Professor McGregor serves as director of the Semiconductor Materials and Radiological Technologies Laboratory at KSU, a 9500 sq ft laboratory dedicated to radiation detector research.He has published over 200 research articles and reports, is co-inventor on over 20 radiation detector patents, and his research group has received five R&D-100 Awards for radiation detector innovations. Prof. McGregor is also the recipient of various other honors, including the KSU College of Engineering (CoE) Frankenhoff Outstanding Research Award (2006) and the CoE Engineering Distinguished Researcher Award (2016).

    J. Kenneth Shultis joined the Nuclear Engineering faculty at Kansas State University in 1969 and where he presently holds the Black and Veatch Distinguished Professorship and is the Ike and Letty Conerstone teaching scholar.Besides being coauthor of this book he has coauthored the books Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Radiation Shielding, Radiological Assessment, Principles of Radiation Shielding, and Exploring Monte Carlo Methods.He is a Fellow of the American Nuclear Society (ANS), and has received many awards for his teaching and research, including the infrequently awarded ANS Rockwell Lifetime Achievement Award for his contributions over 50 years to the practice of radiation shielding.