Radiation Injury Prevention and Mitigation in Humans  book cover
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Radiation Injury Prevention and Mitigation in Humans





ISBN 9781138374607
Published September 18, 2018 by CRC Press
302 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

With an estimated 3.3 billion ionizing radiation imaging examinations performed worldwide each year, the growing use of x-ray-based diagnostic procedures raises concerns about long-term health risks, especially cancer. In addition, rapid growth in the number of nuclear power plants around the world increases the risk of a nuclear accident similar to that of Fukushima, Japan. Add to this, exposure to non-ionizing radiation from prolonged cell phone use, proton radiation from solar flares, and potential nuclear conflict or a dirty bomb attack, and the need to expand our repertoire of radiation prevention and mitigation strategies becomes increasingly urgent.

Radiation Injury Prevention and Mitigation in Humans identifies and examines physical protection strategies as well as non-toxic, cost-effective biological protection strategies. This includes agents that—when administered orally before and/or after irradiation exposures—could be effective in preventing and mitigating acute radiation damage. The book discusses implementing physical and biological protection strategies particularly for first responders, radiation workers, astronauts, and civilians who might be exposed to higher doses of radiation in the course of their activities. The book describes:

  • Physics of ionizing radiation and radiological weapons, principles of nuclear reactors, the types of radiological weapons, and consequences of their explosions
  • Acute and late health effects of high and low doses of radiation
  • The efficacy of FDA-approved and unapproved radioprotective and radiation mitigating agents
  • The efficacy of radioprotective and radiation mitigating agents not requiring FDA approval (antioxidants and herbs)
  • Scientific data and rationale in support of using micronutrient preparations containing dietary and endogenous antioxidants for preventing acute radiation sickness and for mitigating the late adverse health effects among survivors of high and low doses of radiation

Examining cutting-edge advances in the research of the effects of non-ionizing radiation on cellular and genetic levels, the book proposes an implementation plan of both physical and biological protection strategies. It covers the full range of potential sources of radiation and includes an up-to-date list of helpful resources and references for the latest research and readings on the topic.

Table of Contents

Growing Health Concerns with Respect to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Can We Prevent and/or Mitigate Them?
Introduction
Prevention of Radiation Injuries
Mitigation of Radiation Injuries
The Concept of a Bioshield against Radiation Damage
Summary

Physics of Radiological Weapons and Nuclear Reactors
Introduction
Structure of an Atom
Isotopes
Radioactivity
Interactions of Radiation with Matter
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear Fusion
Physics of Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear Accidents
Summary
References

Acute Radiation Damage by High Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Humans
Introduction
Radiation-Induced Free Radicals
Concept of Radiosensitivity of Cells
Cellular Radiobiology
Biochemical Changes
Radiation Syndromes
Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS) in Accidently Exposed Individuals
Damage to Organ Systems
Genetic Basis of Radiation Response in Vitro and in Vivo
Mutations and Chromosomal Damage
Cellular Immune Response to Ionizing Radiation
Radiation Effects on Fetus
Radiation Effects on Embryos during Preimplantation of Zygotes
Radiation Effects on Embryos after Implantation of Zygotes
Radiation Effects on Embryos during Organogenesis
Radiation Effects on the Eye of Embryos
Radiation Effects on the Gonads of Embryos
Identification of a Novel Mechanism of Action of Radiation
Summary
References

Long-Term Damages among Survivors of High Doses of Ionizing Radiation
Introduction
Spontaneous Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Cost
Study of Carcinogenesis in Experimental Models (Tissue Culture and Animals
Proposed Stages of Carcinogenesis
Effect of Interaction between Radiation and Chemicals on Carcinogenesis
Radiation-Induced Cancer Incidence in Humans
Incidence of Radiation-Induced Cancer in Humans
Late Effects of High-Doses of Radiation on the Risk of Non-Neoplastic Diseases
Summary
References

Prevention and Mitigation of Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS)
Introduction
Definition of Radioprotective and Radiation Mitigating Agents
Concept of a Bioshield against Radiation Damage
Prevention of ARS by Radioprotective Agents
Factors to be Considered in the Study of Radioprotective Agents
Radioprotective Pharmacological Agents
Radioprotective Pharmacological Agents Not Approved by the FDA
Radioprotective Drugs Approved by the FDA for Other Indications in Humans
Radioprotective Herbal Extracts Not Requiring FDA Approval
Limitations of Using Most Identified Radioprotective Agents for Prevention of ARS in Humans
Radioprotective Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants Not Requiring FDA Approval
Scientific Rationale for Using Multiple Antioxidants
Scientific Rationale for Utilizing Oral Route of Administration
Scientific Rationale for Administering Multiple Antioxidants before and after Irradiation
Animal Studies to Demonstrate the Radioprotective Efficacy of a Mixture of Multiple Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants Administered Orally before and/or after Irradiation
Proposed Recommendation for Using BioShield-R2 in Combination with Standard Therapy for Prevention of ARS in Humans
Mitigation of ARS
Drugs and Biologics Approved by the FDA
Drugs and Biologics Not Approved by the FDA
Radioprotective Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants Not Requiring Approval by the FDA
Potential Candidates for an Ideal Bioshield against ARS
Proposed Recommendations for Using a Micronutrient Preparation (BioShield-R3) in Combination with Standard Therapy for Mitigating ARS in Humans
Summary
References

Prevention and Mitigation of Late Adverse Effects of High Radiation Doses
Introduction
Studies on the Role of Antioxidants in Cancer Prevention
Properties of Antioxidants Relevant to Cancer Prevention
Cancer Prevention Studies with Antioxidants
Cancer Risk after Treatment with Multiple Dietary Antioxidants
Cancer Risk after Treatment with Vitamin D and Calcium
Cancer Risk after Treatment with Folate and B Vitamins
Cancer Risk after Treatment with Fat and Fiber
Essential Factors for an Effective Cancer Prevention Strategy
Proposed Cancer Prevention Strategy for Radiation-Exposed Populations
Safety of Micronutrients in BioShield-R2
BioShield-R2 and the Risk of Nonneoplastic Diseases
Summary
References

Health Risks of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation
Introduction
Sources of Background Radiation
Diagnostic Radiation Procedures
Radiation Workers
Consequences of Exposure to Low Doses of Radiation
Models Used for Risk Estimates of Radiation-Induced Cancer
Cancer Risks in Populations Exposed to Diagnostic Radiation Procedures
Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers
Cancer Risk in Military and Civilian Pilots and Flight Attendants
Cancer Risk among Frequent Flyers
Risk of Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Nonneoplastic Diseases
Summary
References

Prevention and Mitigation against Radiological Weapons and Nuclear Plant Accidents
Introduction
Current Preventive Recommendations to Reduce Radiation Doses after Explosion of a Dirty Bomb or a Nuclear Power Plant Accident
Proposed Preventive Biological Radiation Protection Strategy after Explosion of a Dirty Bomb or a Nuclear Power Plant Accident
Current and Proposed Preventive Recommendations to Reduce Radiation Doses after Explosion of an Atom Bomb
Current and Proposed Mitigation Strategy to Reduce Damage after Irradiation with Low or High Doses of Radiation
Use of BioShield-R2 and Bioshield-R3
Summary
References

Prevention and Mitigation of Damage after Low Radiation Doses
Introduction
Application of the Concept of a Bioshield for Prevention of Radiation Damage
BioShield-R1 for Individuals Receiving Diagnostic Radiation Procedures and Frequent Flyers
BioShield-R2 for Radiation Workers and Crews of Commercial and Military Aircraft
Summary
References

Implementation Plans for Prevention and Mitigation of Radiation Injury
Introduction
Radiation Protection Strategies
Implementation Plans for Radiation Protection Strategies
Educational Programs on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exercises and Drills
Stockpiling of Radiation Preventive and Mitigating Agents for Biological Protection
Responsible Agencies for Stockpiling Radiation Preventive and Mitigating Agents
Summary

Health Risks of Nonionizing Radiation and Their Prevention and Mitigation
Introduction
Ultraviolet Radiation
Biological Effects of UV Radiation
Mechanisms of UV Radiation–Induced Damage
Protection against UV Radiation–Induced Damage to the Skin
Other Forms of Electromagnetic Radiation
Cell Phones
Mechanisms of Cell Phone–Induced Damage and Its Protection by Antioxidants
Infrared Radiation (IR)
Biological Effects of Infrared Radiation
Effect of Magnetic Field
Summary
References

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Dr. Kedar N. Prasad obtained a master’s degree in zoology from the University of Bihar, Ranchi, India, and a PhD in radiation biology from the University of Iowa, Iowa City, in 1963. He received postdoctoral training at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, New York, and joined the Department of Radiology at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, where he became a professor and director for the Center for Vitamins and Cancer Research.

Dr. Prasad has published over 200 articles in peer-reviewed journals, and authored and edited 15 books in the areas of radiation biology, nutrition and cancer, and nutrition and neurological diseases, particularly Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. These articles were published in highly prestigious journals such as Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States. Dr. Prasad has received many honors, including an invitation by the Nobel Prize Committee to nominate a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Medicine for 1982; the 1999 Harold Harper Lecture at the meeting of the American College of Advancement in Medicine; and an award for the best review of 1998–1999 on antioxidants and cancer and 1999–2000 on antioxidants and Parkinson’s disease by the American College of Nutrition.

Dr. Prasad is a Fellow of the American College of Nutrition and served as president of the International Society of Nutrition and Cancer, 1992–2000. He belongs to several professional societies, such as the American Association for Cancer Research and the Radiation Research Society. Currently, he is chief scientific officer of the Premier Micronutrient Corporation.