Radiation Injury Prevention and Mitigation in Humans: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Radiation Injury Prevention and Mitigation in Humans

1st Edition

By Kedar N. Prasad

CRC Press

302 pages | 14 B/W Illus.

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Description

With an estimated 3.3 billion ionizing radiation imaging examinations performed worldwide each year, the growing use of x-ray-based diagnostic procedures raises concerns about long-term health risks, especially cancer. In addition, rapid growth in the number of nuclear power plants around the world increases the risk of a nuclear accident similar to that of Fukushima, Japan. Add to this, exposure to non-ionizing radiation from prolonged cell phone use, proton radiation from solar flares, and potential nuclear conflict or a dirty bomb attack, and the need to expand our repertoire of radiation prevention and mitigation strategies becomes increasingly urgent.

Radiation Injury Prevention and Mitigation in Humans identifies and examines physical protection strategies as well as non-toxic, cost-effective biological protection strategies. This includes agents that—when administered orally before and/or after irradiation exposures—could be effective in preventing and mitigating acute radiation damage. The book discusses implementing physical and biological protection strategies particularly for first responders, radiation workers, astronauts, and civilians who might be exposed to higher doses of radiation in the course of their activities. The book describes:

  • Physics of ionizing radiation and radiological weapons, principles of nuclear reactors, the types of radiological weapons, and consequences of their explosions
  • Acute and late health effects of high and low doses of radiation
  • The efficacy of FDA-approved and unapproved radioprotective and radiation mitigating agents
  • The efficacy of radioprotective and radiation mitigating agents not requiring FDA approval (antioxidants and herbs)
  • Scientific data and rationale in support of using micronutrient preparations containing dietary and endogenous antioxidants for preventing acute radiation sickness and for mitigating the late adverse health effects among survivors of high and low doses of radiation

Examining cutting-edge advances in the research of the effects of non-ionizing radiation on cellular and genetic levels, the book proposes an implementation plan of both physical and biological protection strategies. It covers the full range of potential sources of radiation and includes an up-to-date list of helpful resources and references for the latest research and readings on the topic.

Table of Contents

Growing Health Concerns with Respect to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Can We Prevent and/or Mitigate Them?

Introduction

Prevention of Radiation Injuries

Mitigation of Radiation Injuries

The Concept of a Bioshield against Radiation Damage

Summary

Physics of Radiological Weapons and Nuclear Reactors

Introduction

Structure of an Atom

Isotopes

Radioactivity

Interactions of Radiation with Matter

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Fusion

Physics of Nuclear Reactors

Nuclear Accidents

Summary

References

Acute Radiation Damage by High Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Humans

Introduction

Radiation-Induced Free Radicals

Concept of Radiosensitivity of Cells

Cellular Radiobiology

Biochemical Changes

Radiation Syndromes

Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS) in Accidently Exposed Individuals

Damage to Organ Systems

Genetic Basis of Radiation Response in Vitro and in Vivo

Mutations and Chromosomal Damage

Cellular Immune Response to Ionizing Radiation

Radiation Effects on Fetus

Radiation Effects on Embryos during Preimplantation of Zygotes

Radiation Effects on Embryos after Implantation of Zygotes

Radiation Effects on Embryos during Organogenesis

Radiation Effects on the Eye of Embryos

Radiation Effects on the Gonads of Embryos

Identification of a Novel Mechanism of Action of Radiation

Summary

References

Long-Term Damages among Survivors of High Doses of Ionizing Radiation

Introduction

Spontaneous Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Cost

Study of Carcinogenesis in Experimental Models (Tissue Culture and Animals

Proposed Stages of Carcinogenesis

Effect of Interaction between Radiation and Chemicals on Carcinogenesis

Radiation-Induced Cancer Incidence in Humans

Incidence of Radiation-Induced Cancer in Humans

Late Effects of High-Doses of Radiation on the Risk of Non-Neoplastic Diseases

Summary

References

Prevention and Mitigation of Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS)

Introduction

Definition of Radioprotective and Radiation Mitigating Agents

Concept of a Bioshield against Radiation Damage

Prevention of ARS by Radioprotective Agents

Factors to be Considered in the Study of Radioprotective Agents

Radioprotective Pharmacological Agents

Radioprotective Pharmacological Agents Not Approved by the FDA

Radioprotective Drugs Approved by the FDA for Other Indications in Humans

Radioprotective Herbal Extracts Not Requiring FDA Approval

Limitations of Using Most Identified Radioprotective Agents for Prevention of ARS in Humans

Radioprotective Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants Not Requiring FDA Approval

Scientific Rationale for Using Multiple Antioxidants

Scientific Rationale for Utilizing Oral Route of Administration

Scientific Rationale for Administering Multiple Antioxidants before and after Irradiation

Animal Studies to Demonstrate the Radioprotective Efficacy of a Mixture of Multiple Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants Administered Orally before and/or after Irradiation

Proposed Recommendation for Using BioShield-R2 in Combination with Standard Therapy for Prevention of ARS in Humans

Mitigation of ARS

Drugs and Biologics Approved by the FDA

Drugs and Biologics Not Approved by the FDA

Radioprotective Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidants Not Requiring Approval by the FDA

Potential Candidates for an Ideal Bioshield against ARS

Proposed Recommendations for Using a Micronutrient Preparation (BioShield-R3) in Combination with Standard Therapy for Mitigating ARS in Humans

Summary

References

Prevention and Mitigation of Late Adverse Effects of High Radiation Doses

Introduction

Studies on the Role of Antioxidants in Cancer Prevention

Properties of Antioxidants Relevant to Cancer Prevention

Cancer Prevention Studies with Antioxidants

Cancer Risk after Treatment with Multiple Dietary Antioxidants

Cancer Risk after Treatment with Vitamin D and Calcium

Cancer Risk after Treatment with Folate and B Vitamins

Cancer Risk after Treatment with Fat and Fiber

Essential Factors for an Effective Cancer Prevention Strategy

Proposed Cancer Prevention Strategy for Radiation-Exposed Populations

Safety of Micronutrients in BioShield-R2

BioShield-R2 and the Risk of Nonneoplastic Diseases

Summary

References

Health Risks of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

Introduction

Sources of Background Radiation

Diagnostic Radiation Procedures

Radiation Workers

Consequences of Exposure to Low Doses of Radiation

Models Used for Risk Estimates of Radiation-Induced Cancer

Cancer Risks in Populations Exposed to Diagnostic Radiation Procedures

Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers

Cancer Risk in Military and Civilian Pilots and Flight Attendants

Cancer Risk among Frequent Flyers

Risk of Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Nonneoplastic Diseases

Summary

References

Prevention and Mitigation against Radiological Weapons and Nuclear Plant Accidents

Introduction

Current Preventive Recommendations to Reduce Radiation Doses after Explosion of a Dirty Bomb or a Nuclear Power Plant Accident

Proposed Preventive Biological Radiation Protection Strategy after Explosion of a Dirty Bomb or a Nuclear Power Plant Accident

Current and Proposed Preventive Recommendations to Reduce Radiation Doses after Explosion of an Atom Bomb

Current and Proposed Mitigation Strategy to Reduce Damage after Irradiation with Low or High Doses of Radiation

Use of BioShield-R2 and Bioshield-R3

Summary

References

Prevention and Mitigation of Damage after Low Radiation Doses

Introduction

Application of the Concept of a Bioshield for Prevention of Radiation Damage

BioShield-R1 for Individuals Receiving Diagnostic Radiation Procedures and Frequent Flyers

BioShield-R2 for Radiation Workers and Crews of Commercial and Military Aircraft

Summary

References

Implementation Plans for Prevention and Mitigation of Radiation Injury

Introduction

Radiation Protection Strategies

Implementation Plans for Radiation Protection Strategies

Educational Programs on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exercises and Drills

Stockpiling of Radiation Preventive and Mitigating Agents for Biological Protection

Responsible Agencies for Stockpiling Radiation Preventive and Mitigating Agents

Summary

Health Risks of Nonionizing Radiation and Their Prevention and Mitigation

Introduction

Ultraviolet Radiation

Biological Effects of UV Radiation

Mechanisms of UV Radiation–Induced Damage

Protection against UV Radiation–Induced Damage to the Skin

Other Forms of Electromagnetic Radiation

Cell Phones

Mechanisms of Cell Phone–Induced Damage and Its Protection by Antioxidants

Infrared Radiation (IR)

Biological Effects of Infrared Radiation

Effect of Magnetic Field

Summary

References

Index

About the Author

Dr. Kedar N. Prasad obtained a master’s degree in zoology from the University of Bihar, Ranchi, India, and a PhD in radiation biology from the University of Iowa, Iowa City, in 1963. He received postdoctoral training at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, New York, and joined the Department of Radiology at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, where he became a professor and director for the Center for Vitamins and Cancer Research.

Dr. Prasad has published over 200 articles in peer-reviewed journals, and authored and edited 15 books in the areas of radiation biology, nutrition and cancer, and nutrition and neurological diseases, particularly Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. These articles were published in highly prestigious journals such as Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States. Dr. Prasad has received many honors, including an invitation by the Nobel Prize Committee to nominate a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Medicine for 1982; the 1999 Harold Harper Lecture at the meeting of the American College of Advancement in Medicine; and an award for the best review of 1998–1999 on antioxidants and cancer and 1999–2000 on antioxidants and Parkinson’s disease by the American College of Nutrition.

Dr. Prasad is a Fellow of the American College of Nutrition and served as president of the International Society of Nutrition and Cancer, 1992–2000. He belongs to several professional societies, such as the American Association for Cancer Research and the Radiation Research Society. Currently, he is chief scientific officer of the Premier Micronutrient Corporation.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SOC040000
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Disasters & Disaster Relief
TEC017000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety