1858 Pages 42 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    ‘Radicalization’ has become one of the great buzzwords of our time. A Google search for the concept produces more than 1,500,000 hits—less than ‘terrorism’ but equal to ‘political violence’ and ‘extremism’. This may seem surprising, given that the term entered the academic vocabulary just ten years ago. Previous generations of scholars had, of course, been interested in why and how people become extremists, but there was no separate field of inquiry which brought together the many political scientists, historians, area studies and terrorism experts, social-movement theorists, and psychologists who had dedicated their scholarly careers—and developed different ideas and approaches—to answering these questions.

    The exponential growth of serious literature on radicalization (and the complementary topic of ‘de-radicalization’) has produced a more coherent scholarly field, with academics from different disciplines coalescing around similar questions and engaging in scholarly debates—for example, on the importance of ideology; the role of the Internet, and the contradictory dynamics of counterterrorism policies—that have created a common stock of knowledge from which new debates and lines of inquiry are generated. In short, the concept of radicalization—however ambiguous and ill-defined—is here to stay, and there is now a sufficiently large body of highly rigorous research from different disciplines to make this new Routledge collection of major works particularly welcome. Indeed, it is destined to make a significant contribution to shaping this young and growing field of scholarly research.

    Volume I: Models and Theories


    1. David R. Mandel, ‘Radicalization: What Does it Mean?’, in Thomas M. Pick, Anne Speckhard, and Beatrice Jacuch (eds.), Home-Grown Terrorism: Understanding and Addressing the Root Causes of Radicalisation Among Groups with an Immigrant Heritage in Europe (Brussels: IOS Press, 2009), pp. 101–13.

    2. Peter R. Neumann, ‘The Trouble with Radicalization’, International Affairs, 2013, 89, 4, 873–93.

    3. Mark Sedgwick, ‘The Concept of Radicalization as Source of Confusion’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 2010, 22, 4, 479–94.


    4. Clark McCauley and Sophia Moskalenko, ‘Mechanisms of Political Radicalization: Pathways Towards Terrorism’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 2008, 20, 3, 415–33.

    5. Fathali M. Moghaddam, ‘The Staircase to Terrorism: A Psychological Exploration’, American Psychologist, 2005, 60, 2, 161–9.

    6. Quintan Wiktorowicz, ‘Joining the Cause: Al Muhajiroun and Radical Islam’ (2004) (previously unpublished).

    7. Marc Sageman, ‘The Hofstad Case and the Blob Theory’ in ‘Theoretical Frames on Pathways to Violent Radicalization’, Artis Research and Risk Modeling, Aug. 2009, 13–29.

    Psychological Approaches

    8. Andrew Silke, ‘Cheshire-cat Logic: The Recurring Theme of Terrorist Abnormality in Psychological Research’, Psychology, Crime & Law, 1998, 4, 1, 51–69.

    9. Clark McCauley and Mary E. Segal, ‘Social Psychology of Terrorist Groups’, in Clyde A. Hendrick (ed.), Review of Personality and Psychology, Vol. 8 (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1987), pp. 231–56.

    10. Simon Cottee and Keith Hayward, ‘Terrorist (E)motives: The Existential Attractions of Terrorism’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2011, 34, 12, 963–86.

    Grievances and Strains

    11. Martha Crenshaw, ‘The Causes of Terrorism’, Comparative Politics, 1981, 13, 4, 379–99.

    12. Steven M. Buechler, ‘The Strange Career of Strain and Breakdown Theories’, in David A. Snow, Sarah A. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), pp. 47–66.

    Ideology and Frames

    13. Robert D. Benford and David A. Snow, ‘Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment’, Annual Review of Sociology, 2000, 26, 611–39.

    14. David A. Snow and Scott C. Byrd, ‘Ideology, Framing Processes, and Islamic Terrorist Movements’, Mobilization: An International Quarterly Review, 2007, 12, 1, 119–36.

    Micro-mobilization and Recruitment

    15. Doug McAdam, ‘Recruitment to High-Risk Activism: The Case of Freedom Summer’, American Journal of Sociology, 1986, 92, 1, 64–90.

    16. Donatella Della Porta, ‘Recruitment Processes in Clandestine Political Organizations: Italian Left-Wing Terrorism’, International Social Movement Research, 1988, 1, 155–69.

    17. Marc Sageman, ‘Social Networks and the Jihad’, Understanding Terrorist Networks (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2004), pp. 137–73.

    Volume II: Issues and Debates

    Conflict, Repression, and Counterterrorism

    18. Eitan Y. Alimi, Lorenzo Bosi, and Chares Demetriou, ‘Relational Dynamics and Processes of Radicalization: A Comparative Framework’, Mobilization: An International Journal, 2012, 17, 1, 7–26.

    19. Mohammed M. Hafez, ‘Repression and Rebellion’, Why Muslims Rebel: Repression and Resistance in the Islamic World (Boulder, CA: Lynne Rienner, 2003), pp. 71–108.

    20. Donatella della Porta, ‘Violence and the Political System: The Policing of Protest’, Social Movements, Political Violence, and the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 55–82.

    Violent and Non-violent Radicalization

    21. James Khalil, ‘Radical Beliefs and Violent Actions are Not Synonymous: How to Place the Key Disjuncture Between Attitudes and Behaviors at the Heart of Our Research into Political Violence’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2014, 37, 2, 198–211.

    22. Stefan Malthaner, ‘Contextualizing Radicalization: The Emergence of the "Sauerland Group" from Radical Networks and the Salafist Movement’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2014, 37, 8, 638–53.

    The Role of Religion

    23. Heather Selma Gregg, ‘Three Theories of Religious Activism and Violence: Social Movements, Fundamentalists, and Apocalyptic Warriors’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 2014, 1–23.

    24. Mark Juergensmeyer, ‘Religion as a Cause of Terrorism’, in Louise Richardson (ed.), The Roots of Terrorism (London and New York: Routledge, 2006), pp. 133–44.

    25. Quintan Wiktorowicz and Karl Kaltenthaler, ‘The Rationality of Radical Islam’, Political Science Quarterly, 2006, 121, 2, 295–319.

    Suicide Terrorism

    26. Scott Atran, ‘The Genesis of Suicide Terrorism’, Science, 2003, 299, 5612, 1534–9.

    27. Assaf Moghadam, ‘Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada: Motivations and Organizational Aspects’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2003, 26, 2, 65–92.

    Lone Actors

    28. Ramon Spaaij, ‘The Enigma of Lone Wolf Terrorism: An Assessment’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2010, 33, 9, 854–70.

    29. Paul Gill, John Horgan, and Paige Deckert, ‘Bombing Alone? Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists’, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2014, 59, 2, 425–35.

    Online Radicalization

    30. Pete Simi and Robert Futrell, ‘Cyberculture and the Endurance of White Power Activism’, Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 2006, 34, 1, 115–42.

    31. Jarret M. Brachman and Alix N. Levine, ‘You Too Can Be Awlaki!’, Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 2011, 35, 1, 25–46.

    32. Adam Bermingham and Maura Conway, ‘Combining Social Network Analysis and Sentiment Analysis and Mining’ (Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining Conference, 20–22 July 2009, Athens, Greece).

    Foreign Fighters

    33. Thomas Hegghammer, ‘The Rise of Muslim Foreign Fighters: Globalization and the Rise of Global Jihad’, International Security, 2010, 35, 3, 53–94.

    34. Thomas Hegghammer, ‘Should I Stay or Should I Go? Explaining Variation in Western Jihadists’ Choice Between Domestic and Foreign Fighting’, American Political Science Review, 2013, 107, 1, 1–15.

    35. Mohammed Hafez, ‘Jihad After Iraq: Lessons From the Arab Afghans’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2009, 32, 2, 73–94.

    Volume III: Groups and Places

    Western Jihadists

    36. Robert S. Leiken, ‘Europe’s Angry Muslims’, Foreign Affairs, July/Aug. 2005, 120–35.

    37. Marc Sageman, ‘The Atlantic Divide’, Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 2008), pp. 89–107.

    38. Eliane Tschaen Barbieri and Jytte Klausen, ‘Al Qaeda’s London Branch: Patterns of Domestic and Transnational Network Integration’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2012, 35, 6, 411–31.

    39. Petter Nesser, ‘Joining Jihadi Cells in Europe: Exploring Motivational Aspects of Radicalization and Recruitment’, in Magnus Ranstorp (ed.), Understanding Violent Radicalisation in Europe: Terrorist and Jihadist Movements in Europe (London: Routledge, 2010), pp. 87–113.

    Middle Eastern Jihadists

    40. Saad Eddin Ibrahim, ‘Anatomy of Egypt’s Islamic Militant Groups: Methodological Note and Preliminary Findings’, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 1980, 12, 423–53.

    41. Thomas Hegghammer, ‘Terrorist Recruitment and Radicalization in Saudi-Arabia’, Middle East Policy, 2006, 13, 4, 39–60.

    42. Mohammed Hafez, ‘From Marginalization to Massacres: Explaining GIA Violence in Algeria’, in Quintan Wiktorowicz (ed.), Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004), pp. 37–60.

    Jihadists Elsewhere

    43. Anne Speckhard and Khapta Akhmedova, ‘Black Widows: The Chechen Female Suicide Terrorists’, in Yoram Schweitzer (ed.), Female Suicide Bombers: Dying for Equality? (Tel Aviv: Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, 2006), pp. 63–80.

    44. Daniel Egbieba Agbiboa, ‘Why Boko Haram Exists: The Relative Deprivation Perspective’, African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review, 2013, 3, 1, 144–57.

    45. John C. Amble and Alexander Meleagrou-Hitchens, ‘Jihadist Radicalization in East Africa: Two Case Studies’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2014, 37, 6, 523–40.

    46. C. Christine Fair, Neil Malhotra and Jacob N. Shapiro, ‘Islam, Militancy, and Politics in Pakistan: Insights From a National Sample’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 2010, 22, 4, 495–521.


    47. Randy Blazak, ‘White Boys to Terrorist Men: Target Recruitment of Nazi Skinheads’, American Behavioral Scientist, 2001, 44, 6, 982–1000.

    48. Alexander Meleagrou-Hitchens and Hans Brun, A Neo-Nationalist Network: The English Defence League and Europe’s Counter-Jihad Movement (London: ICSR, 2013), pp. 41–66.


    49. Cynthia McClintock, ‘Why Peasants Rebel: The Case of Peru’s Sendero Luminoso’, World Politics, 1984, 37, 1, 48–84.

    50. Dipak K. Gupta, ‘The Naxalites and the Maoist Movement in India: Birth, Demise, and Reincarnation’, Democracy and Security, 2007, 3, 2, 157–88.

    51. Ehud Sprinzak, ‘The Psychopolitical Formation of Extreme Left Terrorism in a Democracy: The Case of the Weathermen’, in Walter Reich (ed.), Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1990), pp. 65–85.

    Volume IV: De- and Counter-radicalization

    Theory and Concepts

    52. Audrey Kurth Cronin, ‘How Terrorist Campaigns End’, in Tore Bjorgo and John Horgan (eds.), Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement (London and New York: Routledge, 2009), pp. 49–65.

    53. Samuel J. Mullins, ‘Rehabilitation of Islamist Terrorists: Lessons from Criminology’, Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, 2010, 3, 3, 162–93.

    54. Mary Beth Altier, Christian N. Thoroughgood, and John Horgan, ‘Turning Away from terrorism: Lessons from Psychology, Sociology, and Criminology’, Journal of Peace Research, 2014, 51, 5, 647–61.

    55. Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen, ‘Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism: Themes and Approaches’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2013, 36, 2, 99–115.

    56. Angel Rabasa, Stacie L. Pettyjohn, Jeremy J. Ghez, and Christopher Boucek, ‘Disengagement and Deradicalization’, Deradicalizing Islamist Extremists (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2010), pp. 1–31.

    Interventions and Exit

    57. Tore Bjorgo, ‘Processes of Disengagement from Violent Groups of the Extreme Right’, in Tore Bjorgo and John Horgan (eds.), Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement (London and New York: Routledge, 2009), pp. 30–48.

    58. Fernando Reinares, ‘Exit from Terrorism: A Qualitative Empirical Study on Disengagement and Deradicalization Among Members of ETA’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 2011, 23, 5, 780–803.

    59. Donatella della Porta, ‘Leaving Underground Organizations: A Sociological Analysis of the Italian Case’, in Tore Bjorgo and John Horgan (eds.), Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement (London and New York: Routledge, 2009), pp. 66–87.

    60. Basia Spalek and Lynn Davies, ‘Mentoring in Relation to Violent Extremism: A Study of Role, Purposes and Outcomes’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2012, 35, 5, 354–68.

    Collective De-radicalization

    61. Omar Ashour, ‘Lions Tamed? An Inquiry into the Causes of De-radicalization of Armed Islamist Movements: The Case of the Egyptian Islamic Group’, Middle East Journal, 2007, 61, 4, 596–625.

    62. Omar Ashour, ‘De-radicalization in Algeria: Successes and Failures’, The De-radicalization of Jihadists: Transforming Armed Islamist Movements (Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2009), pp. 110–26.

    Individual De-radicalization

    63. Christopher Boucek, ‘Extremist Disengagement in Saudi-Arabia: Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Aftercare’, in Rohan Gunaratna, Jolene Jerard, and Lawrence Rubin (eds.), Terrorist Rehabilitation and Counter-Radicalisation: New Approaches to Counter-terrorism (London and New York: Routledge, 2011), pp. 70–90.

    64. ‘"Deradicalisation" and Indonesian Prisons’ (Asia Report No. 142, International Crisis Group, Nov. 2007), pp. 1–25.

    65. Arie W. Kruglanski et al., ‘De-radicalising the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE): Some Preliminary Findings’, in Andrew Silke (ed.), Prisons, Terrorism and Extremism: Critical Issues in Management, Radicalisation and Reform (New York and Abingdon: Routledge, 2014), pp. 183–96.

    66. Marisa L. Porges, ‘Deradicalization, the Yemeni Way’, Survival, 2010, 52, 2, 27–33.

    Counter-radicalization Policies

    67. Kumar Ramakrishna, ‘The "Three Rings" of Terrorist Rehabilitation and Counter-Ideological Work in Singapore: A Decade On’, in Andrew Silke (ed.), Prisons, Terrorism and Extremism: Critical Issues in Management, Radicalisation and Reform (New York and Abingdon: Routledge, 2014), pp. 197–213.

    68. Lorenzo Vidino, ‘Countering Radicalization in America: Lessons from Europe’ (United States Institute for Peace, Special Report 262, Nov. 2010), pp. 1–14.

    69. Anthony Richards, ‘The Problem with "Radicalization": The Remit of "Prevent" and the Need to Refocus on Terrorism in the UK’, International Affairs, 2011, 87, 1, 143–52.