Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment

1st Edition

By Leonid F. Chernogor, Nathan Blaunstein

CRC Press

568 pages | 176 B/W Illus.

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Description

Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment describes experimental and theoretical studies on the effects of rocket burns and launchings on the near-the-Earth environment and geomagnetic fields. It illuminates the main geophysical and radiophysical effects on the ionosphere and magnetosphere surrounding the Earth that accompany rocket or cosmic apparatus burns and launchings from 1,000 to 10,000 kilometers.

The book analyzes the disturbances of plasma and the ambient magnetic and electric fields in the near-Earth environment from rocket burns and launchings from Russia, Kazakhstan, the United States, China, France, and other global space centers. Describing the radiophysical effects of rocket burn and launching in the middle and upper ionosphere, it focuses on the ecological consequences of space exploration—detailing methods for eliminating the harmful effects of space exploration.

Measurements for the studies presented in the book were carried out using numerous radiophysical methods and techniques, including HF Doppler radar, incoherent and coherent scatter radar systems, microwave radar, magnetometer, and optical instrumentation and spectroscopy.

The book analyzes the effects of rocket burns and launchings from 1975 to 2010 in worldwide launch campaigns. This book is an ideal reference for scientists in geophysics and radiophysics, specialists in rocket launching, and ecologists. It is also suitable as a fundamental handbook for graduate and postgraduate students taking physics and cosmic sciences courses at the university level.

Table of Contents

DIAGNOSTICS Of PLASMA PERTURBATIONS BY USING DOPPLER RADIO SOUNDING

Perturbations in the Ionosphere Caused by Rocket Launches

Overview

Properties and Parameters of the Lower, Middle, and Outer Ionospheres

Peculiarities of the Interaction of Moving SVs with the Ionosphere

Cosmodromes and Types of Rockets

Large-Scale Perturbations in RL and Flight—Doppler Spectra Analysis

Global Perturbations in Rocket Flights and SV Maneuvers

Global Perturbations during Landing of SVs

Discussion of Results

Large-Scale Disturbances

Global Disturbances

Global Effects during Landing of SVs

Main Results

References

Perturbations in the Background of a Magnetic Storm

Overview

Magnetic Storm Phenomenon

Perturbation of the Ambient Geomagnetic Field by a Moving SV

Results of Observations Using Different Radiophysical Techniques

Partial Reflection Method

Doppler Sounding Method

Discussions on the Result of Observations

Effects at the F-Region of the Ionosphere

Effects in the D-Region of the Ionosphere

Main Results

References

Wave Disturbance Transport Caused by Rocket Launches Accompanied by Solar Terminator

Overview

Results of Observations

Rocket Launches

Passage of the Solar Terminator

Results of Statistical Analysis

Rocket Launches

Passing of the Solar Terminator

Transportation of Perturbations—Types of Waves

Acoustic Gravity Waves

Slow MHD Waves

Gyrotropic Waves

Magnetic-Gradient Waves

Discussion of Results

Passing of Solar Terminator

Rocket Launches

Magnitude of Disturbance

Main Results

References

DIAGNOSTICS Of PLASMA WAVE DISTURBANCES BY INCOHERENT SCATTER AND DOPPLER RADARS

Perturbations in the Middle and Outer Ionosphere

Overview

Method of Identification of Wave Disturbances

Method of IS

Method of Doppler Sounding

Processes in the Ionosphere That Accompany Soyuz Launch

Observations on Use of ISR

Observations by the DR

Processes in the Ionosphere Accompanying Space Shuttle Launch

Observations by the ISR

Observations by the DR

Processes in the Ionosphere Accompanying Delta Launch

Observations by the ISR

Observations by the DR

Discussion of Results

Soyuz Launch

Space Shuttle Launch

Start of SV Delta

Main Results

References

Results of Similar Types of Experiments

Overview

Method of Identification of Wave Disturbances

Results of Observation of RLs from Russian Territory

Soyuz Launch on October 18, 2003

Soyuz Launch on December 27, 2003

Soyuz Launch on January 29, 2004

Soyuz Launch on May 25, 2004

Proton Launch on December 10, 2003

Proton Launch on March 15, 2004

Proton Launch on June 17, 2004

Proton Launch on October 29, 2004

Proton Launch on February 3, 2005

Proton Launch on March 29, 2005

Results and Discussions

Soyuz Launch on October 18, 2003

Soyuz Launch on December 27, 2003

Soyuz Launch on January 29, 2004

Soyuz Launch on May 25, 2004

Proton Launch on December 10, 2003

Proton Launch on March 15, 2004

Proton Launch on June 17, 2004

Proton Launch on October 10, 2004

Proton Launch on February 3, 2005

Proton Launch on March 29, 2005

References

Cluster Diagnostics of Plasma Disturbances

Overview

Techniques and Methodology

Conditions of Space Weather

Results of Measurements and Signal Processing

Spatiotemporal Characteristics

Results of Spectral Analysis

Results and Discussions

Major Results

References

System Spectral Analysis of Plasma and Geomagnetic Perturbations

Overview

Spectral Analysis of Temporal Series

General Presentation of the Adaptive Fourier Transform

Resolution of the Signal Spectrum in the Period and Time Domains

Peculiarities of the Adaptive Fourier Transform

Condition of the Space Weather

Results of Modeling of the Processes

Methods and Techniques of Experimental Studies

Results of Experimental Studies

Sounding of the Ionosphere by Doppler Radar

Sounding of the Ionosphere by Incoherent Scatter Radar

Magnetometric Observations of WDs in the Ionosphere

Results of the Spectral Analysis of Experimental Data

Method of Doppler Sounding

Method of Incoherent Scattering

Spectral Analysis by Using a Magnetometer

Discussion of the Results

Effects of the Rocket Launches

Radiophysical Methods

Magnetometric Technique

Effects of the Solar Terminator

Major Results

References

DIAGNOSTICS OF GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES

Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Launches from Russian Cosmodromes

Rocket Launches from Baikonur Cosmodrome

Overview

Method of Analysis

Level of Magnetic Perturbations

Results of Observations

Soyuz Launch

Proton Launches

Results of the Statistical Analysis

Theoretical Models

General Information

Mechanisms of Geomagnetic Disturbance Generation

Modulation of the Ionospheric Currents

Excitation of Charged Particles by Waves

Results and Discussions

Geomagnetic Effects of RLs from Plesetsk Cosmodrome

Overview

The Level of Magnetic Perturbation

Results of Observations

Rokot Launch

Cosmos-3M Launch

Soyuz Launch

Molnia Launch

Results of Statistical Analysis

Results and Discussions

Main Results

References

Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Launches from Cosmodromes Worldwide

Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Launches from Chinese Cosmodromes

Overview

Level of Magnetic Perturbation

Results of Observation

Results of Statistical Analysis

Results of Spectral Analysis

Results and Discussions

Geomagnetic Effects of RLs from Cape Canaveral and Kourou Cosmodromes

Overview

Level of Magnetic Perturbations

Results of Observation

Ariane-5 Launch

Space Shuttle Launch

Results of Spectral Analysis

Results of Statistical Analysis

Results and Discussions

Geomagnetic Effects of RLs from Various Cosmodromes Worldwide

Overview

Methods of Analysis

Results of Observations

Results of Statistical Analysis

Results and Discussions

Main Results

References

Peculiarities of Magneto-Ionospheric Effects during Launch of a Group of Rockets

Overview

Description of Active Experiments

Methods of Analysis

Condition of the Space Weather

Results of Observations of Launches in Russia

Molnia-M Launch

Rokot Launch

Sineva Launch

Topol Launch

Results and Discussions

Effects of the Ionosphere

Effects in the Geomagnetic Field

Main Results

References

ROCKET BURN AND LAUNCH AND RADIO COMMUNICATION

Modification of the Ionosphere Caused by Rocket and Space Vehicle Burn and Launch

Overview

Geophysical Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch Compared to Those Observed in Active-Space Experiments and Associated with Natural Phenomena

Observations of Effects Caused by Rocket Burn and Launch

Ionospheric Plasma Perturbations Caused by Rocket Burn and Launch

Specific Features of Plasma Disturbance Generation by Rocket Burn and Launch

Special Releases Related to Rocket Burns and Launches

Experimental Observations of the Effects Associated with Artificially Injected Clouds and Pump Radio Waves

Injection of Ion Clouds from Geophysical Rockets

Observation of Heating-Induced Plasma Structures

Similarity between Natural Phenomena and Those Observed in Active-Space Experiments

Observation of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

Meteor-Induced HE-Inhomogeneities in Middle- Latitude Ionosphere

Natural Plasma Depletions Generated during Magnetic Storms

Main Results

References

Theoretical Aspects of Plasma Structure Creation Associated with Rocket Burn and Launch

Overview

Evolution of Rocket-Induced Plasma Structures

in the Ionosphere

Infringement of Ionization–Recombination Balance by Rocket Burn and Launch in the Ionosphere

Processes in the D-Layer and Lower E-Layer of the Ionosphere

Processes in the Upper E-Layer and the F-Layer of the Ionosphere

Plasma Enhancements and Depletions Induced by Rocket Burn and Launch in the Ionosphere

D-Layer of the Ionosphere

Upper E-Layer and F-Layer of the Ionosphere

Generation of Plasma Instabilities in the Ionosphere by Rocket Burn and Launch

Plasma Instability Generation in the Upper F-Layer Depletion Zones

Plasma Instabilities Generated in the D-Layer by Rocket Release

Recombination Instabilities

Kinetic Instability

Plasma Instabilities Generated in the Upper E-Layer to the Upper F-Layer by Rocket Release

Current-Convective Instability

Gradient-Drift Instability

Two-Stream Instability

Rayleigh–Taylor Instability

Generation of Plasma Turbulences in the Ionosphere by Rocket Burn and Launch

Evolution of Plasma Irregularities/Turbulences in the Lower Ionosphere Associated with Rocket Release and Burn

Role of Chemical Reactions and Heating- Induced Instabilities in Plasma Structure Creation

Role of Turbulence in Plasma Disturbance Generation and Damping

Evolution of Plasma Irregularities in Middle and Upper Ionosphere Associated with Rocket Releases

Main Results

References

Influence of Rocket Burn and Launch on Ionospheric Radio Communication

Overview

Spectral Branches, Resonances, and Waves in the Ionospheric Plasma

Key Definitions and Characteristics

Spectral Branches and Resonances in Two- Component Cold Plasma

Two-Component Collisionless Cold Plasma

Two-Component Collisional Cold Plasma

Wave Types in Nonisothermal Multicomponent Ionospheric Plasma Perturbed by Rocket Engine and Plume Exhaust Gases

Multicomponent Isothermal Collisional Plasma

Nonisothermal Warm Plasma

Ionospheric Guiding Effects for EFL/ VLF/ LF-Range Radio Wave Propagation

Capturing MF/HF-Range Radio Waves into Waveguide Created in Layered, Perturbed Ionosphere

Propagation of HF/VHF/UHF-Range Radio Waves in Perturbed Ionosphere

Effects of Global and Large-Scale Irregular Structures on MF/HF/VHF-Range Radio Wave Propagation

Effects of Moderate- and Small-Scale Irregularities

Filled Perturbed Ionospheric Regions on HF/ VHF/ UHF-Range Radio Wave Propagation

Attenuation of HF/VHF-Range Radio Waves in Perturbed Ionosphere

Doppler Frequency Shift and HF/VHF/UHF-Range Radio Wave Spread

Depolarization of HF/VHF/UHF-Band Radio Waves

Main Results

References

VECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN NEAR-THE-EARTH SPACE ACTIVITY

Ecological Aspects of Rocket Burns and Launches

Overview

Influence of RLs on the Planet’s Surface

About Cosmodromes and Rockets

Fall of the First Stages of Rockets

Fall of SV Fragments

Influence of Rocket Burn and Launch on Near-the-Earth Atmosphere

Effects in the Atmosphere

Influence on the Weather and Climate

Distortion of the Ozonosphere

Influence of Cosmic Activity on Geospace

General Effects

Objective

Gas Injection

Energy Injection

Space Debris

Minimization of Ecological Damage

Overview

Problems in Minimization of Ecological Damage

Conclusions and Suggestions

References

Appendix

Index

About the Authors

Nathan Blaunstein was born in Moldova, former USSR, in 1948. He received MS degrees in radio physics and electronics from Tomsk University, Tomsk, former Soviet Union, in 1972, and PhD and DS and professor degrees in radio physics and electronics from the Institute of Geomagnetism, Ionosphere, and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIR), Academy of Science USSR, Moscow, Russia, in 1985 and 1991, respectively. From 1979 to 1984, he was an engineer and a lecturer, and then, from 1984 to 1992, a senior scientist, an associate professor, and a professor at Moldavian University, Beltsy, Moldova. From 1993 he was a researcher of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and a visiting professor in the Wireless Cellular Communication Program at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Since April 2001, he has been an associate professor, and in 2005, a full professor in the Department of Communication Systems Engineering. Dr. Blaunstein has published ten books, two special chapters in handbooks on applied engineering and applied electrodynamics, six manuals, and over 190 articles in radio and optical physics, communication, and geophysics. His research interests include problems of radio and optical wave propagation, diffraction, reflection, and scattering in various media (sub-soil medium, terrestrial environments, troposphere, and ionosphere) for purposes of optical communication and radio and optical location, aircraft, mobile-satellite, and terrestrial wireless communications and networking.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NAT010000
NATURE / Ecology
SCI032000
SCIENCE / Geophysics
TEC024000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Microwaves