Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment  book cover
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Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment





ISBN 9781138033849
Published October 23, 2017 by CRC Press
568 Pages 176 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment describes experimental and theoretical studies on the effects of rocket burns and launchings on the near-the-Earth environment and geomagnetic fields. It illuminates the main geophysical and radiophysical effects on the ionosphere and magnetosphere surrounding the Earth that accompany rocket or cosmic apparatus burns and launchings from 1,000 to 10,000 kilometers.

The book analyzes the disturbances of plasma and the ambient magnetic and electric fields in the near-Earth environment from rocket burns and launchings from Russia, Kazakhstan, the United States, China, France, and other global space centers. Describing the radiophysical effects of rocket burn and launching in the middle and upper ionosphere, it focuses on the ecological consequences of space exploration—detailing methods for eliminating the harmful effects of space exploration.

Measurements for the studies presented in the book were carried out using numerous radiophysical methods and techniques, including HF Doppler radar, incoherent and coherent scatter radar systems, microwave radar, magnetometer, and optical instrumentation and spectroscopy.

The book analyzes the effects of rocket burns and launchings from 1975 to 2010 in worldwide launch campaigns. This book is an ideal reference for scientists in geophysics and radiophysics, specialists in rocket launching, and ecologists. It is also suitable as a fundamental handbook for graduate and postgraduate students taking physics and cosmic sciences courses at the university level.

Table of Contents

DIAGNOSTICS OF PLASMA PERTURBATIONS BY USING DOPPLER RADIO SOUNDING

Perturbations in the Ionosphere Caused by Rocket Launches
Overview
Properties and Parameters of the Lower, Middle, and Outer Ionospheres
Peculiarities of the Interaction of Moving SVs with the Ionosphere
Cosmodromes and Types of Rockets
Large-Scale Perturbations in RL and Flight—Doppler Spectra Analysis
Global Perturbations in Rocket Flights and SV Maneuvers
Global Perturbations during Landing of SVs
Discussion of Results
     Large-Scale Disturbances 
     Global Disturbances 
     Global Effects during Landing of SVs
Main Results
References

Perturbations in the Background of a Magnetic Storm
Overview 
     Magnetic Storm Phenomenon 
     Perturbation of the Ambient Geomagnetic Field by a Moving SV
Results of Observations Using Different Radiophysical Techniques 
     Partial Reflection Method 
     Doppler Sounding Method
Discussions on the Result of Observations
     Effects at the F-Region of the Ionosphere 
     Effects in the D-Region of the Ionosphere
Main Results
References

Wave Disturbance Transport Caused by Rocket Launches Accompanied by Solar Terminator
Overview
Results of Observations 
     Rocket Launches 
     Passage of the Solar Terminator
Results of Statistical Analysis 
     Rocket Launches 
     Passing of the Solar Terminator
Transportation of Perturbations—Types of Waves 
     Acoustic Gravity Waves 
     Slow MHD Waves 
     Gyrotropic Waves 
     Magnetic-Gradient Waves
Discussion of Results 
     Passing of Solar Terminator 
     Rocket Launches 
     Magnitude of Disturbance
Main Results
References

DIAGNOSTICS Of PLASMA WAVE DISTURBANCES BY INCOHERENT SCATTER AND DOPPLER RADARS

Perturbations in the Middle and Outer Ionosphere
Overview
Method of Identification of Wave Disturbances 
     Method of IS 
     Method of Doppler Sounding
Processes in the Ionosphere That Accompany Soyuz Launch 
     Observations on Use of ISR 
     Observations by the DR
Processes in the Ionosphere Accompanying Space Shuttle Launch 
     Observations by the ISR
     Observations by the DR
Processes in the Ionosphere Accompanying Delta Launch 
     Observations by the ISR 
     Observations by the DR
Discussion of Results 
     Soyuz Launch 
     Space Shuttle Launch 
     Start of SV Delta
Main Results
References

Results of Similar Types of Experiments
Overview
Method of Identification of Wave Disturbances
Results of Observation of RLs from Russian Territory 
     Soyuz Launch on October 18, 2003 
     Soyuz Launch on December 27, 2003 
     Soyuz Launch on January 29, 2004 
     Soyuz Launch on May 25, 2004 
     Proton Launch on December 10, 2003
     Proton Launch on March 15, 2004 
     Proton Launch on June 17, 2004 
     Proton Launch on October 29, 2004 
     Proton Launch on February 3, 2005 
     Proton Launch on March 29, 2005
Results and Discussions 
     Soyuz Launch on October 18, 2003 
     Soyuz Launch on December 27, 2003 
     Soyuz Launch on January 29, 2004 
     Soyuz Launch on May 25, 2004 
     Proton Launch on December 10, 2003 
     Proton Launch on March 15, 2004 
     Proton Launch on June 17, 2004 
     Proton Launch on October 10, 2004 
     Proton Launch on February 3, 2005 
     Proton Launch on March 29, 2005
References

Cluster Diagnostics of Plasma Disturbances
Overview
Techniques and Methodology
Conditions of Space Weather
Results of Measurements and Signal Processing 
     Spatiotemporal Characteristics 
     Results of Spectral Analysis
Results and Discussions
Major Results
References

System Spectral Analysis of Plasma and Geomagnetic Perturbations
Overview
Spectral Analysis of Temporal Series
     General Presentation of the Adaptive Fourier Transform 
     Resolution of the Signal Spectrum in the Period and Time Domains 
     Peculiarities of the Adaptive Fourier Transform
Condition of the Space Weather
Results of Modeling of the Processes
Methods and Techniques of Experimental Studies
Results of Experimental Studies 
     Sounding of the Ionosphere by Doppler Radar 
     Sounding of the Ionosphere by Incoherent Scatter Radar 
     Magnetometric Observations of WDs in the Ionosphere
Results of the Spectral Analysis of Experimental Data
     Method of Doppler Sounding 
     Method of Incoherent Scattering 
     Spectral Analysis by Using a Magnetometer
Discussion of the Results 
     Effects of the Rocket Launches 
          Radiophysical Methods 
          Magnetometric Technique 
     Effects of the Solar Terminator
Major Results
References

DIAGNOSTICS OF GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES

Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Launches from Russian Cosmodromes
Rocket Launches from Baikonur Cosmodrome 
     Overview 
     Method of Analysis 
     Level of Magnetic Perturbations 
     Results of Observations 
          Soyuz Launch 
          Proton Launches 
     Results of the Statistical Analysis 
     Theoretical Models 
          General Information 
          Mechanisms of Geomagnetic Disturbance Generation 
          Modulation of the Ionospheric Currents 
          Excitation of Charged Particles by Waves 
     Results and Discussions
Geomagnetic Effects of RLs from Plesetsk Cosmodrome 
     Overview 
     The Level of Magnetic Perturbation
     Results of Observations 
          Rokot Launch 
          Cosmos-3M Launch 
          Soyuz Launch 
          Molnia Launch 
     Results of Statistical Analysis 
     Results and Discussions
Main Results
References

Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Launches from Cosmodromes Worldwide
Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Launches from Chinese Cosmodromes
     Overview 
     Level of Magnetic Perturbation 
     Results of Observation 
     Results of Statistical Analysis 
     Results of Spectral Analysis 
     Results and Discussions
Geomagnetic Effects of RLs from Cape Canaveral and Kourou Cosmodromes 
     Overview 
     Level of Magnetic Perturbations 
     Results of Observation 
          Ariane-5 Launch 
          Space Shuttle Launch 
     Results of Spectral Analysis 
     Results of Statistical Analysis 
     Results and Discussions
Geomagnetic Effects of RLs from Various Cosmodromes Worldwide 
     Overview 
     Methods of Analysis 
     Results of Observations 
     Results of Statistical Analysis
Results and Discussions
Main Results
References

Peculiarities of Magneto-Ionospheric Effects during Launch of a Group of Rockets
Overview
Description of Active Experiments
Methods of Analysis
Condition of the Space Weather
Results of Observations of Launches in Russia 
     Molnia-M Launch 
     Rokot Launch 
     Sineva Launch 
     Topol Launch
Results and Discussions 
     Effects of the Ionosphere 
     Effects in the Geomagnetic Field
Main Results
References

ROCKET BURN AND LAUNCH AND RADIO COMMUNICATION

Modification of the Ionosphere Caused by Rocket and Space Vehicle Burn and Launch
Overview
Geophysical Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch Compared to Those Observed in Active-Space Experiments and Associated with Natural Phenomena 
     Observations of Effects Caused by Rocket Burn and Launch
          Ionospheric Plasma Perturbations Caused by Rocket Burn and Launch 
          Specific Features of Plasma Disturbance Generation by Rocket Burn and Launch 
          Special Releases Related to Rocket Burns and Launches
Experimental Observations of the Effects Associated with Artificially Injected Clouds and Pump Radio Waves 
     Injection of Ion Clouds from Geophysical Rockets 
     Observation of Heating-Induced Plasma Structures
Similarity between Natural Phenomena and Those Observed in Active-Space Experiments 
     Observation of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles 
     Meteor-Induced HE-Inhomogeneities in Middle- Latitude Ionosphere 
     Natural Plasma Depletions Generated during Magnetic Storms
Main Results
References

Theoretical Aspects of Plasma Structure Creation Associated with Rocket Burn and Launch
Overview
Evolution of Rocket-Induced Plasma Structures
in the Ionosphere
Infringement of Ionization–Recombination Balance by Rocket Burn and Launch in the Ionosphere 
     Processes in the D-Layer and Lower E-Layer of the Ionosphere 
     Processes in the Upper E-Layer and the F-Layer of the Ionosphere
Plasma Enhancements and Depletions Induced by Rocket Burn and Launch in the Ionosphere 
     D-Layer of the Ionosphere 
     Upper E-Layer and F-Layer of the Ionosphere
Generation of Plasma Instabilities in the Ionosphere by Rocket Burn and Launch 
     Plasma Instability Generation in the Upper F-Layer Depletion Zones 
     Plasma Instabilities Generated in the D-Layer by Rocket Release 
          Recombination Instabilities 
           Kinetic Instability 
     Plasma Instabilities Generated in the Upper E-Layer to the Upper F-Layer by Rocket Release 
          Current-Convective Instability 
          Gradient-Drift Instability 
          Two-Stream Instability 
          Rayleigh–Taylor Instability
Generation of Plasma Turbulences in the Ionosphere by Rocket Burn and Launch
     Evolution of Plasma Irregularities/Turbulences in the Lower Ionosphere Associated with Rocket Release and Burn 
          Role of Chemical Reactions and Heating- Induced Instabilities in Plasma Structure Creation 
          Role of Turbulence in Plasma Disturbance Generation and Damping 
     Evolution of Plasma Irregularities in Middle and Upper Ionosphere Associated with Rocket Releases
Main Results
References

Influence of Rocket Burn and Launch on Ionospheric Radio Communication
Overview
Spectral Branches, Resonances, and Waves in the Ionospheric Plasma 
     Key Definitions and Characteristics 
     Spectral Branches and Resonances in Two- Component Cold Plasma 
          Two-Component Collisionless Cold Plasma 
          Two-Component Collisional Cold Plasma
Wave Types in Nonisothermal Multicomponent Ionospheric Plasma Perturbed by Rocket Engine and Plume Exhaust Gases 
     Multicomponent Isothermal Collisional Plasma 
     Nonisothermal Warm Plasma
Ionospheric Guiding Effects for EFL/ VLF/ LF-Range Radio Wave Propagation
Capturing MF/HF-Range Radio Waves into Waveguide Created in Layered, Perturbed Ionosphere
Propagation of HF/VHF/UHF-Range Radio Waves in Perturbed Ionosphere 
     Effects of Global and Large-Scale Irregular Structures on MF/HF/VHF-Range Radio Wave Propagation
     Effects of Moderate- and Small-Scale Irregularities
Filled Perturbed Ionospheric Regions on HF/ VHF/ UHF-Range Radio Wave Propagation
Attenuation of HF/VHF-Range Radio Waves in Perturbed Ionosphere
Doppler Frequency Shift and HF/VHF/UHF-Range Radio Wave Spread
Depolarization of HF/VHF/UHF-Band Radio Waves
Main Results
References

VECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN NEAR-THE-EARTH SPACE ACTIVITY

Ecological Aspects of Rocket Burns and Launches
Overview
Influence of RLs on the Planet’s Surface 
     About Cosmodromes and Rockets 
     Fall of the First Stages of Rockets 
     Fall of SV Fragments
Influence of Rocket Burn and Launch on Near-the-Earth Atmosphere 
     Effects in the Atmosphere 
     Influence on the Weather and Climate 
     Distortion of the Ozonosphere
Influence of Cosmic Activity on Geospace 
     General Effects 
          Objective 
          Gas Injection 
          Energy Injection 
     Space Debris
Minimization of Ecological Damage 
     Overview 
     Problems in Minimization of Ecological Damage
Conclusions and Suggestions
References

Appendix

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Nathan Blaunstein was born in Moldova, former USSR, in 1948. He received MS degrees in radio physics and electronics from Tomsk University, Tomsk, former Soviet Union, in 1972, and PhD and DS and professor degrees in radio physics and electronics from the Institute of Geomagnetism, Ionosphere, and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIR), Academy of Science USSR, Moscow, Russia, in 1985 and 1991, respectively. From 1979 to 1984, he was an engineer and a lecturer, and then, from 1984 to 1992, a senior scientist, an associate professor, and a professor at Moldavian University, Beltsy, Moldova. From 1993 he was a researcher of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and a visiting professor in the Wireless Cellular Communication Program at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Since April 2001, he has been an associate professor, and in 2005, a full professor in the Department of Communication Systems Engineering. Dr. Blaunstein has published ten books, two special chapters in handbooks on applied engineering and applied electrodynamics, six manuals, and over 190 articles in radio and optical physics, communication, and geophysics. His research interests include problems of radio and optical wave propagation, diffraction, reflection, and scattering in various media (sub-soil medium, terrestrial environments, troposphere, and ionosphere) for purposes of optical communication and radio and optical location, aircraft, mobile-satellite, and terrestrial wireless communications and networking.